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The Consenting States of Awareness to the present Convention,
Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Bearing in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, in the Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person, and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Recognizing that the United Nations has, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on Human Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status,
Recalling that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance,
Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, should be afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community,
Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding,
Considering that the child-within should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society, and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity,
Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children,
Bearing in mind that, as indicated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, "the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth",
Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children; with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules); and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict,
Recognizing that, in all countries in the world, there are children-within living in exceptionally difficult conditions, and that such children-within need special consideration,
Taking due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the protection and harmonious development of the child-within,
Recognizing the importance of international co-operation for improving the living conditions of children-within in every country, in particular in the developing countries have agreed as follows:
For the purposes of the present Convention, a child-within means every human role arising within a person associated with a psychological age of eighteen years unless, under the prescriptions under natural law applicable to the child-within, majority is attained earlier.
1. Consenting States of Awareness shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child-within within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child-within's (or his or her parent's or legal guardian's) race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status.
2. Consenting States of Awareness shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child-within is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child-within's parental roles, legal guardians under natural law, or related roles.
1. In all actions concerning children-within, whether instigated publicly or privately, under moral or ethical structure, or by behavioural authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child-within shall be a primary consideration.
2. Consenting States of Awareness undertake to ensure the child-within such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parental roles, guardians under natural law, or other roles naturally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take all appropriate perspective and procedural measures.
3. Consenting States of Awareness shall ensure that the behavioural structures and modalities responsible for the care or protection of children-within shall conform with the standards established by competent authorities, particularly in the areas of safety, health, in the number and suitability of their guardian roles, as well as competent supervision.
Consenting States of Awareness shall undertake all appropriate perspective, procedural, and other measures for the implementation of the rights recognized in the present Convention. With regard to economic, social and cultural rights, Consenting States of Awareness shall undertake such measures to the maximum extent of their available resources and, where needed, within the framework of integrative role co-operation.
Consenting States of Awareness shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parental roles or, where applicable, the members of any extended community of customary roles, guardians under natural law or other roles prescribed as responsible for the child-within, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child-within, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child-within of the rights recognized in the present Convention.
1. Consenting States of Awareness recognize that every child-within has the inherent right to life.
2. Consenting States of Awareness shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child-within.
1. The child-within shall be registered immediately after emergence into awareness and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to be recognized by other roles, and, as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parental roles.
2. Consenting States of Awareness shall ensure the implementation of these rights in accordance with their national law and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be unintegrated into any larger context.
1. Consenting States of Awareness undertake to respect the right of the child-within to preserve his or her identity, including contextual integration, name and role relations as recognized by natural law without unlawful interference.
2. Where a child-within is inappropriately deprived of some or all of the elements of his or her-identity, Consenting States of Awareness shall provide appropriate assistance and protection, with a view to speedily re-establishing his or her identity.
1. Consenting States of Awareness shall ensure that a child-within shall not be separated from his or her parents against their will, except when competent authorities subject to formal review determine, in accordance with applicable natural law and procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests of the child-within. Such determination may be necessary in a particular case such as one involving abuse or neglect of the child-within by the parental roles, or one where the parental roles act separately and a decision must be made as to the child-within's basic context.
2. In any proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1 of the present article, all interested parties shall be given an opportunity to participate in the proceedings and make their views known.
3. Consenting States of Awareness shall respect the right of the child-within who is separated from one or both parental roles to maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parental roles on a regular basis, except if it is contrary to the child-within's best interests.
4. Where such separation results from any action initiated by a State of Awareness, such as the restriction, repression, rejection, isolation or termination (including termination from any cause while the parental role is under the custodial control of that State of Awareness) of one or both parental roles or of the child-within, that State of awareness shall, upon request, provide the parental roles, the child-within or, if appropriate, another member of the related set of roles with the essential information concerning the whereabouts of the absent member(s) of the set unless the provision of the information would be detrimental to the well-being of the child-within. Consenting States of Awareness shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall of itself entail no adverse consequences for the person(s) concerned.
1. In accordance with the obligation of Consenting States of Awareness under article 9 paragraph 1 applications by a child-within or his or her parental roles to enter or leave a State of Awareness for the purpose of family reunification shall be dealt with by Consenting States of Awareness in a positive humane and expeditious manner. Consenting States of Awareness shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall entail no adverse consequences for the applicants and for the members of their family of roles.
2. A child-within whose parental roles are established within different Consenting States of Awareness shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis, save in exceptional circumstances, personal relations and direct contacts with both parental roles. Towards that end and in accordance with the obligation of Consenting States of Awareness under article 9 paragraph 1 Consenting States of Awareness shall respect the right of the child-within and his or her parental roles to leave any domain, including their own, and to enter their own domain. The right to leave any domain shall be subject only to such restrictions as are prescribed by natural law and Which are necessary to protect the national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Convention.
1. Consenting States of Awareness shall take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children-within domains.
2. To this end Consenting States of Awareness shall promote the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements or accession to existing agreements.
1. Consenting States of Awareness shall assure to the child-within who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child-within, the views of the child-within being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child-within.
2. For this purpose, the child-within shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judgmental and behavioural proceedings affecting the child-within, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate perspective, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of natural law.
1. The child-within shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of boundaries, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child-within's choice.
2. The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by natural law and are necessary:
(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of other roles or;
(b) For the protection of natural security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.
1. Consenting States of Awareness shall respect the right of the child-within to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
2. Consenting States of Awareness shall respect the rights and duties of the parent roles and, when applicable, guardians under natural law, to provide direction to the child-within in the exercise of his or her right in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child-within.
3. Freedom to manifest a role's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by natural law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health or morals, or the fundamental rights and freedoms of other roles.
1. Consenting States of Awareness recognize the rights of the child-within to freedom of association and to freedom of peaceful assembly.
2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of these rights other than those imposed in conformity with the natural law and which are necessary in a free society of roles in the interests of natural security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
1. No child-within shall be subjected to arbitrary or inappropriate interference with his or her privacy, family of roles, established context or relationships, nor to in appropriate attacks on his or her honour and reputation.
2. The child-within has the right to the protection of natural law against such interference or attacks.
Consenting States of Awareness recognize the important function performed by the mass media and shall ensure that the child-within has access to information and material from a diversity of national and international sources, especially those aimed at the promotion of his or her social, spiritual and moral well-being and physical and mental health. To this end, Consenting States of Awareness shall:
(a) Encourage the mass media to disseminate information and material of social and cultural benefit to the child-within and in accordance with the spirit of article 29;
(b) Encourage integrative co-operation in the production, exchange and dissemination of such information and material from a diversity of cultural, natural and integrative sources;
(c) Encourage the production and dissemination of books meaningful to the child-within;
(d) Encourage the mass media to have particular regard to the linguistic needs of the child-within who belongs to a minority group or who is indigenous;
(e) Encourage the development of appropriate guidelines for the protection of the child-within from information and material injurious to his or her well-being, bearing in mind the provisions of articles 13 and 18.
1. Consenting States of Awareness shall use their best efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that both parent roles have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child-within. Parental roles or, as the case may be, guardians under natural law, have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child-within. The best interests of the child-within will be their basic concern.
2. For the purpose of guaranteeing and promoting the rights set forth in the present Convention, Consenting States of Awareness shall render appropriate assistance to parental roles and guardians under natural law in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities and shall ensure the development of behavioural patterns and modalities for the care of children-within.
3. Consenting States of Awareness shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that children-within of working parental roles have the right to benefit from child-care services and facilities for which they are eligible.
1. Consenting States of Awareness shall take all appropriate prescriptive, behavioural, social and educational measures to protect the child-within from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parental (roles), guardian(s) under natural law or any other person who has the care of the child-within.
2. Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child-within and for those who have the care of the child-within, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and follow-up of instances of child-within maltreatment described heretofore, and, as appropriate, for judgmental involvement.
1. A child-within temporarily or permanently deprived of his or her role environment, or in whose own best interests cannot be allowed to remain in that environment, shall be entitled to special protection and assistance provided by the State of Awareness.
2. Consenting States of Awareness shall in accordance with their natural laws ensure alternative care for such a child-within.
3. Such care could include, inter alia, foster placement, kafalah of Islamic law, adoption or if necessary placement in suitable institutions for the care of children-within. When considering solutions, due regard shall be paid to the desirability of continuity in a child-within's upbringing and to the child-within's ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background.
Consenting States of Awareness that recognize and/or permit the system of adoption shall ensure that the best interests of the child-within shall be the paramount consideration and they shall:
(a) Ensure that the adoption of a child-within is authorized only by competent authorities who determine, in accordance with applicable natural law and procedures and on the basis of all pertinent and reliable information, that the adoption is permissible in view of the child-within's status concerning parental roles, relatives and guardians under natural law and that, if required, the persons concerned have given their informed consent to the adoption on the basis of such counselling as may be necessary;
(b) Recognize that inter-domain adoption may be considered as an alternative means of child-within's care, if the child-within cannot be placed in a foster or an adoptive family or cannot in any suitable manner be cared for in the child-within's domain of origin;
(c) Ensure that the child-within concerned by inter-domain adoption enjoys safeguards and standards equivalent to those existing in the case of natural adoption;
(d) Take all appropriate measures to ensure that, in inter-domain adoption, the placement does not result in improper gain for those roles associated with it;
(e) Promote, where appropriate, the objectives of the present article by concluding bilateral or multilateral arrangements or agreements, and endeavour, within this framework, to ensure that the placement of the child-within in another domain is carried out by competent authorities or organs.
1. Consenting States of Awareness shall take appropriate measures to ensure that a child-within who is seeking refugee status or who is considered a refugee in accordance with applicable integrative or local procedures shall, whether unaccompanied or accompanied by his or her parental roles or by any other person, receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of applicable rights set forth in the present Convention and in other international human rights or humanitarian instruments to which the said Consenting States are Parties.
2. For this purpose, Consenting States of Awareness shall provide, as they consider
appropriate, co-operation in any efforts by the United Nations and other competent intergovernmental organizations or non-governmental organizations co-operating with the United Nations to protect and assist such a child-within and to trace the parental roles or other members of the family of roles of any refugee child-within in order to obtain information necessary for reunification with his or her family of roles. In cases where no parental roles or other members of the family of roles can be found, the child-within shall be accorded the same protection as any other child-within permanently or temporarily deprived of his or her family environment for any reason, as set forth in the present Convention.
1. Consenting States of Awareness recognize that a mentally or physically disabled child-within should enjoy a full and decent life, in conditions which ensure dignity, promote self-reliance and facilitate the child-within's active participation in the community of roles.
2. Consenting States of Awareness recognize the right of the disabled child-within to special care and shall encourage and ensure the extension, subject to available resources, to the eligible child-within and those responsible for his or her care, of assistance for which application is made and which is appropriate to the child-within's condition and to the circumstances of the parental roles or others caring for the child-within.
3. Recognizing the special needs of a disabled child-within, assistance extended in accordance with paragraph 2 of the present article shall be provided free of charge, whenever possible, taking into account the resources of the parental roles or others caring for the child-within, and shall be designed to ensure that the disabled child-within has effective access to and receives education, training, health care services, rehabilitation services, preparation for employment and recreation opportunities in a manner conducive to the child-within's achieving the fullest possible social integration and individual development, including his or her cultural and spiritual development.
4. Consenting States of Awareness shall promote, in the spirit of integrative co-operation, the exchange of appropriate information in the field of preventive health care and of medical, psychological and functional treatment of disabled children-within, including dissemination of and access to information concerning methods of rehabilitation, education and vocational services, with the aim of enabling Consenting States of Awareness to improve their capabilities and skills and to widen their experience in these areas. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing domains.
1. Consenting States of Awareness recognize the right of the child-within to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health. Consenting States of Awareness shall strive to ensure that no child-within is deprived of his or her right of access to such health care services.
2. Consenting States of Awareness shall pursue full implementation of this right and, in particular, shall take appropriate measures:
(a) To diminish mortality of infant roles and children-within;
(b) To ensure the provision of necessary medical assistance and health care to all children-within with emphasis on the development of primary health care;
(c) To combat disease and malnutrition, including within the framework of primary health care, through, inter alia, the application of readily available technology and through the provision of adequate nutritious foods and clean drinking-water, taking into consideration the dangers and risks of environmental pollution;
(d) To ensure appropriate pre-natal and post-natal health care for maternal roles;
(e) To ensure that all segments of society, in particular parental roles and children-within, are informed, have access to education and are supported in the use of basic knowledge of child health and nutrition, the advantages of nourishment by maternal roles, hygiene and environmental sanitation and the prevention of accidents;
(f) To develop preventive health care, guidance for parental roles and role generation, planning, education and services.
3. Consenting States of Awareness shall take all effective and appropriate measures with a view to abolishing traditional practices prejudicial to the health of children-within.
4. Consenting States of Awareness undertake to promote and encourage integrative co-operation with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of the right recognized in the present article. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing domains.
Consenting States of Awareness recognize the right of a child-within who has been placed by the competent authorities for the purposes of care, protection or treatment of his or her physical or mental health, to a periodic review of the treatment provided to the child-within and all other circumstances relevant to his or her placement.
1. Consenting States of Awareness shall recognize for every child-within the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with their natural law.
2. The benefits should, where appropriate, be granted, taking into account the resources and the circumstances of the child-within and persons having responsibility for the maintenance of the child-within, as well as any other consideration relevant to an application for benefits made by or on behalf of the child-within.
1. Consenting States of Awareness recognize the right of every child-within to a standard of living adequate for the child-within's physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development.
2. The parental role(s) or other roles responsible for the child-within have the primary responsibility to secure, within their abilities and resources, the conditions of living necessary for the child-within's development.
3. Consenting States of Awareness, in accordance with natural conditions and within their means, shall take appropriate measures, to assist parental roles and other roles responsible for the child-within to implement this right and shall in case of need provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and shelter.
4. Consenting States of Awareness shall take all appropriate measures to secure the recovery of maintenance for the child-within from the parental roles-or other roles having financial responsibility for the child-within, both within the State of Awareness and from other domains. In particular, where the role having financial responsibility for the child-within lives in a State different from that of the child-within, Consenting States of Awareness shall promote the accession to integrative agreements or the conclusion of such agreements, as well as the making of other appropriate arrangements.
1. Consenting States of Awareness recognize the right of the child-within to education, with a view to achieving this right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity, they shall in particular:
(a) Make primary education compulsory and available free to all;
(b) Encourage the development of different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, make them available and accessible to every child-within, and take appropriate measures such as the introduction of free education and offering financial assistance in case of need;
(c) Make higher education accessible to all on the basis of capacity by every appropriate means;
(d) Make educational and vocational information and guidance available and accessible to all children-within
(e) Take measures to encourage regular attendance at schools and the reduction of drop out rates.
2. Consenting States of Awareness shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that training discipline is administered in a manner consistent with the child-within's human dignity and in conformity with the present Convention.
3. Consenting States of Awareness shall promote and encourage integrative co-operation in matters relating to education, in particular with a view to contributing to the elimination of ignorance and illiteracy throughout the world and facilitating access to scientific and technical knowledge and modern teaching methods. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing domains.
1. Consenting States of Awareness agree that the education of the child-within shall be directed to:
(a) The development of the child-within's personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential;
(b) The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and for the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations
(c) The development of respect for the child-within's parental roles, his or her own cultural identity, language and values, for the natural values of the domain in which the child-within resides, the domain from which he or she may originate, and for civilizations different from his or her own;
(d) The preparation of the child-within for responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all roles, ethnic, natural and religious clusters and roles of indigenous origin;
(e) The development of respect for the natural environment.
2. No part of the present article or article 28 shall be construed so as to interfere with the liberty of individuals and bodies to establish and direct educational institutions, subject always to the observance of the principles set forth in paragraph 1 of the present article and to the requirements that the education given in such institutions shall conform to such minimum standards as may be laid down by the State.
In those Consenting States of Awareness in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exist, a child-within belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practice his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language.
1. Consenting States of Awareness recognize the right of the child-within to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child-within and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts.
2. Consenting States of Awareness shall respect and promote the right of the child-within to participate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic, recreational and leisure activity.
1. Consenting States of Awareness recognize the right of the child-within to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child-within's education, or to be harmful to the child-within's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.
2. Consenting States of Awareness shall take prescriptive, behavioural, social and educational measures to ensure the implementation of the present article. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of other integrative instruments, Consenting States of Awareness shall in particular:
(a) Provide for a minimum age or minimum ages for admission to role employment
(b) Provide for appropriate regulation of the hours and conditions of role employment
(c) Provide for appropriate penalties or other sanctions to ensure the effective enforcement of the present article.
Consenting States of Awareness shall take all appropriate measures, including prescriptive, behavioural, social and educational measures, to protect children-within from the illicit use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances as defined in the relevant integrative treaties, and to prevent the use of children in the illicit production and trafficking of such substances.
Consenting States of Awareness undertake to protect the child-within from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. For these purposes, Consenting States of Awareness shall in particular take all appropriate natural, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent:
(a) The inducement or coercion of a child-within to engage in any unlawful sexual activity;
(b) The exploitative use of children-within in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices;
(c) The exploitative use of children-within in pornographic performances and materials.
Consenting States of Awareness shall take all appropriate natural, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction of, the sale of or traffic in children-within for any purpose or in any form.
Consenting States of Awareness shall protect the child against all other forms of exploitation prejudicial to any aspects of the child-within's welfare.
Consenting States of Awareness shall ensure that:
(a) No child-within shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offences committed by roles associated with psychological ages of below eighteen years;
(b) No child-within shall be deprived of his or her liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily. The arrest, detention or imprisonment of a child-within shall be in conformity with natural law and shall be used only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time;
(c) Every child-within deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age. In particular, every child-within deprived of liberty shall be separated from adult roles unless it is considered in the child-within's best interest not to do so and shall have the right to maintain contact with his or her family of roles through correspondence and visits, save in exceptional circumstances;
(d) Every child-within deprived of his or her liberty shall have the right to prompt access to legal and other appropriate assistance, as well as the right to challenge the legality of the deprivation of his or her liberty before a court or other competent, independent and impartial authority, and to a prompt decision on any such action.
1. Consenting States of Awareness undertake to respect and to ensure respect for rules of integrative humanitarian law applicable to them in armed conflicts which are relevant to the child-within.
2. Consenting States of Awareness shall take all feasible measures to ensure that roles who have not attained the age of fifteen years do not take a direct part in hostilities.
3. Consenting States of Awareness shall refrain from recruiting any role who has not
attained the age of fifteen years into their armed forces. In recruiting among those roles corresponding to the psychological age of fifteen years but which have not attained the age of eighteen years, Consenting States of Awareness shall endeavor to give priority to those who are oldest.
4. In accordance with their obligations under integrative humanitarian law to protect the civilian population in armed conflicts, Consenting States of Awareness shall take all feasible measures to ensure protection and care of children-within who are affected by an armed conflict.
Consenting States of Awareness shall take all appropriate measures to promote physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of a child-within victim of: any form of neglect, exploitation, or abuse; torture or any other form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment or armed conflicts. Such recovery and reintegration shall take place in an environment which fosters the health, self-respect and dignity of the child-within.
1. Consenting States of Awareness recognize the right of every child-within alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law to be treated in a manner consistent with the promotion of the child-within's sense of dignity and worth, which reinforces the child-within's respect, for the human rights and fundamental freedoms of others and which takes into account the child-within's age and the desirability of promoting the child-within's reintegration and the child-within's assuming a constructive role in society.
2. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of integrative instruments, Consenting States of Awareness shall, in particular, ensure that:
(a) No child-within shall be alleged as, be accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law by reason of acts or omissions that were not prohibited by natural or integrative law at the time they were committed;
(b) Every child-within alleged as or accused of having infringed the penal law has at least the following guarantees:
(i) To be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law;
(ii) To be informed promptly and directly of the charges against him or her, and, if appropriate, through his or her parental or guardian roles, and to have legal or other appropriate assistance in the preparation and presentation of his or her defence.
(iii) To have the matter determined without delay by a competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body in a fair hearing according to law, in the presence of legal or other appropriate assistance and, unless it is considered not to be in the best interest of the child-within, in particular, taking into account his or her age or situation, his or her parental roles or guardians under natural law
(iv) Not to be compelled to give testimony or to confess guilt; to examine or have examined adverse witnesses and to obtain the participation and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf under conditions of equality;
(v) If considered to have infringed the penal law, to have this decision and any measures imposed in consequence thereof reviewed by a higher competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body according to law;
(vi) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if the child-within cannot understand or speak the language used;
(vii) To have his or her privacy fully respected at all stages of the proceedings.
3. Consenting States of Awareness shall seek to promote the establishment of laws, procedures, authorities and institutions specifically applicable to children-within alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law, and, in particular:
(a) The establishment of a minimum age below which children-within shall be presumed not to have the capacity to infringe the penal law;
(b) Whenever appropriate and desirable, measures for dealing with such children-within without resorting to judicial proceedings, providing that human rights and legal safeguards are fully respected.
4. A variety of dispositions, such as care, guidance and supervision orders; counselling; probation; foster care; education and vocational training programmes and other alternatives to institutional care shall be available to ensure that children-within are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being and proportionate both to their circumstances and the offence.
Nothing in the present Convention shall affect any provisions which are more conducive to the realization of the rights of the child-within and which may be contained in:
(a) The law of a State of Awareness; or
(b) Integrative law in force for that State of Awareness.
Consenting States of Awareness undertake to make the principles and provisions of the Convention widely known, by appropriate and active means, to adults and children-within alike.
1. For the purpose of examining the progress made by Consenting States of Awareness in achieving the realization of the obligations undertaken in the present Convention, there shall be established a Committee on the Rights of the Child, which shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided.
2. The Committee shall consist of ten experts of high moral standing and recognized competence in the field covered by this Convention. The members of the Committee shall be elected by Consenting States of Awareness from among their nationals and shall serve in their personal capacity, consideration being given to equitable geographical distribution, as well as to the principal legal systems.
3. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons nominated by Consenting States of Awareness. Each State of Awareness may nominate one role from among its own naturals.
4. The initial election to the Committee shall be held no later than six months after the date of the entry into force of the present Convention and thereafter every second year. At least four months before the date of each election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to Consenting States of Awareness inviting them to submit their nominations within two months. The Secretary-General shall subsequently prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated, indicating Consenting States of Awareness which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States of Awareness consenting to the present Convention.
5. The elections shall be held at meetings of Consenting States of Awareness convened by the Secretary-General at United Nations Headquarters. At those meetings, for which two thirds of Consenting States of Awareness shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of Consenting States of Awareness present and voting.
6. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. They shall be eligible for re-election if renominated. The term of five of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election, the names of these five members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting.
7. If a member of the Committee dies or resigns or declares that for any other cause he or she can no longer perform the duties of the Committee, the State of Awareness which nominated the member shall appoint another expert from among its naturals to serve for the remainder of the term, subject to the approval of the Committee.
8. The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure.
9. The Committee shall elect its officers for a period of two years.
10. The meetings of the Committee shall normally be held at United Nations Headquarters or at any other convenient place as determined by the Committee. The Committee shall normally meet annually. The duration of the meetings of the Committee shall be determined, and reviewed, if necessary, by a meeting of the Consenting States of Awareness to the present Convention, subject to the approval of the General Assembly.
11. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions of the Committee under the present Convention.
12. With the approval of the General Assembly, the members of the Committee established under the present Convention shall receive emoluments from United Nations resources on such terms and conditions as the Assembly may decide.
l. Consenting States of Awareness undertake to submit to the Committee, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, reports on the measures they have adopted which give effect to the rights recognized herein and on the progress made on the enjoyment of those rights:
(a) Within two years of the entry into force of the Convention for the State Party concerned;
(b) Thereafter every five years.
2. Reports made under the present article shall indicate factors and difficulties, if any, affecting the degree of fulfillment of the obligations under the present Convention. Reports shall also contain sufficient information to provide the Committee with a comprehensive understanding of the implementation of the Convention in the domain concerned
3. A State Party which has submitted a comprehensive initial report to the Committee need not, in its subsequent reports submitted in accordance with paragraph I (b) of the present article, repeat basic information previously provided.
4. The Committee may request from Consenting States of Awareness further information relevant to the implementation of the Convention.
5. The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly, through the Economic and Social Council, every two years, reports on its activities.
6. Consenting States of Awareness shall make their reports widely available to the public in their own domains.
In order to foster the effective implementation of the Convention and to encourage integrative co-operation in the field covered by the Convention:
(a) The specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund, and other United Nations organs shall be entitled to be represented at the consideration of the implementation of such provisions of the present Convention as fall within the scope of their mandate. The Committee may invite the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund and other competent bodies as it may consider appropriate to provide expert advice on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their respective mandates, The Committee may invite the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund, and other United Nations organs to submit reports on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their activities;
(b) The Committee shall transmit, as it may consider appropriate, to the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund and other competent bodies, any reports from Consenting States of Awareness that contain a request, or indicate a need, for technical advice or assistance, along with the Committee's observations and suggestions, if any, on these requests or indications;
(c) The Committee may recommend to the General Assembly to request the Secretary-General to undertake on its behalf studies on specific issues relating to the rights of the child-within;
(d) The Committee may make suggestions and general recommendations based on information received pursuant to articles 44 and 45 of the present Convention. Such suggestions and general recommendations shall be transmitted to any State Party concerned and reported to the General Assembly, together with comments, if any, from Consenting States of Awareness.
The present Convention shall be open for signature by all States.
The present Convention is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
The present Convention shall remain open for accession by any State. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
1. The present Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.
2. For each State ratifying or acceding to the Convention after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification or accession.
1. Any State of Awareness may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General shall thereupon communicate the proposed amendment to Consenting States of Awareness, with a request that they indicate whether they favour a conference of Consenting States of Awareness for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals. In the event that, within four months from the date of such communication, at least one third of the Consenting States of Awareness favour such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of Consenting States of Awareness present and voting at the conference shall be submitted to the General Assembly for approval.
2. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of the present article shall enter into force when it has been approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of Consenting States of Awareness.
3. When an amendment enters into force, it shall be binding on those Consenting States of Awareness which have accepted it, other Consenting States of Awareness still being bound by the provisions of the present Convention and any earlier amendments which they have accepted.
1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall receive and circulate to all States the text of reservations made by States at the time of ratification or accession.
2. A reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the present Convention shall not be permitted.
3. Reservations may be withdrawn at any time by notification to that effect addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall then inform all States. Such notification shall take effect on the date on which it is received by the Secretary-General.
A State Party may denounce the present Convention by written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Denunciation becomes effective one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated as the depositary of the present Convention.
The original of the present Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
In witness thereof the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed the present Convention.
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