Functional Classification in an
Integrative Matrix of Human
- / -
Commentary on a matrix
-- an experimental subject configuration for the exploration
of interdisciplinary relationships between organizations, problems, strategies,
values and human development [from Yearbook
of International Organizations
] First presented in outline form to the 5th
Network Meeting of the Goals, Processes and Indicators of Development (GPID)
project of the United Nations University (Montreal 1980). Presented in amplified
form to a sub-group of that project (Athens, 1982). First published in International
11 (1984), 2, pp. 69-76 and 11 (1984), 3. Subsequently published
in successive editions of the Yearbook of International Organizations
, with amendments.
- Review of classification of organizations in the Yearbook of
- Review of other approaches to international organization
- Possibilities of an alternative approach
- Preliminary design considerations
- Insights from periodic classification
- Practical orientation
- Experimental orientation
- Pattern building orientation
- Activity word list
- Interrelating major classes
- Elaborating a matrix of distinctions
Go to Part Two of this document
The Yearbook of International Organizations (Volume 1) in 1996 describes or
lists over 28,036 bodies which can in some way be considered international organizations.
Whether governmental or nongovernmental, their activities interweave in a myriad ways in
the processes of the international community. Although organizations are listed in
alphabetical order of titles and abbreviations in Volume 1 of the Yearbook and a
multilingual index is provided in this volume, this nevertheless fails to provide an
ordered, comprehensible overview of how such activities interrelate. In the absence of any
such ordering, tendencies to fragmentation are reinforced and subtler approaches to
integration are hindered.
This paper clarifies this challenge and describes the factors entering into the design
of the process from which the activity classification in this volume emerged as a first
product. It is important to note, as is explained below, that it is unnecessary to read or
agree with the contents of this paper in order to derive practical benefit from the
classification in its present form. The concern of this paper is to point out other ways
of making use of the classification and the possibilities for its further development.
1. Review of classification of organizations in the Yearbook
of International Organizations
When the predecessor of the Yearbook of International Organizations was first
produced in 1910, the organizations were classified in it according to the Universal
Decimal Classification (UDC) system. This was to be expected given that the person
co-responsible for both the UDC and for the organizations publishing the Annuaire de la
Vie Internationale (as it was first known) was Paul Otlet, often referred to as the
'father of international documentation'. In 1910, on the occasion of the 1st
World Congress of International Associations, he produced a 'Tableau de
l'Organisation Internationale' grouping organizations (and conferences) by subject
area. An improved version of this was produced in 1924 by him, on the occasion of the 4th
Conference of International Associations, covering some 400 international bodies with
comments on their activities (2). The practice of using the UDC for classifying
international organizations in its archives was in fact continued up until 1960 by the
Union of International Associations.
The use of the UDC proved however to be too cumbersome for the organization of the
Yearbook of International Organizations after its resuscitation in 1949. Between 1951 and
1965 (10th edition), organizations were grouped into some 20 subject chapters and
allocated a simple filing number for indexing purposes. The number changed from edition to
edition as a result of additions. Intergovernmental bodies were grouped in a separate
non-subject chapter. This system proved progressively less satisfactory due to the
emergence of organizations which could be usefully allocated to more than one subject
In the 11th and 12th editions the organizations were ordered alphabetically in an
encyclopedia format. A systematic permanent numbering system was maintained in parallel as
a development of the earlier subject division. The approach created filing problems so
that, in anticipation of the conversion to computer processing, organizations were given a
permanent filing number from the 13th edition (1970-71). The subject-based numbering was
abandoned from the 14th edition. The original subject 'chapter' division was
however maintained, with some additions, until 1980, in order to ensure statistical
continuity. But from the 15th edition (1974) such statistics proved increasingly suspect
due to the problem of overlap between categories and despite the introduction of
'secondary' classifications. It was recognized that a totally different approach
would have to be used.
2. Review of other approaches to international organization
The Union of International Associations is obviously not the only body faced with the
problem of classifying international organization activities. In searching for better
approaches it is therefore important to take into account other initiatives, even if their
focus is not solely concerned with international organizations.
Of greatest potential value is the Macrothesaurus; a basic list of economic and
social development terms (3). This was first published in 1972 by the Organisation for
Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in collaboration with other bodies, including
the FAO and the ILO. Unfortunately its value is limited by the range of subjects indicated
by its sub-title. It is however adapted to computer processing and exists in a
multi-lingual version. It uses a 6-digit subject code.
Also of great potential value is the initiative of the International Federation for
Documentation (FID), under contract to UNESCO, to design a Broad System of Ordering
(4). This is known as BSO and reflects FID's experience as the agency responsible for the
UDC. The BSO was intended as the basis for interconnecting information systems within the
framework of the Intergovernmental Programme for Co-operation in the Field of Scientific
and Technological Information (UNISIST). The most recent draft was published in 1978. It
has met with severe criticism and is not particularly well-designed for computer
processing. In addition, as might be expected from the priorities of UNISIST, the range of
subjects does not respond to the detail or variety encountered in the Yearbook of
Simpler in many respects, and therefore of greater practical value, is the
inter-organizational exercise within the United Nations system carried out by the
Inter-Organization Board for Information Systems (IOB) with the approval of the
Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC). This resulted in the production of a list
of Broad Terms for United Nations Programmes and Activities in 1979 (5). The 2,500
terms are grouped in 16 activity divisions defined at this stage by a 3-digit code
permitting further development. The difficulty here is that the system does not appear to
have been further developed and does not yet respond to the variety encountered in the
Yearbook, especially as reflected in the concerns of nongovernmental organizations.
Also of great interest as a practical approach is the technique used by the publishers
of commercial subject directories for multi-lingual users. An example is the 'yellow
page' directory produced for Belgian telephone subscribers. Subjects are given a
4-digit numeric code which does not however have any classificatory significance except to
provide a numeric sequence. Separate indexes in English, Flemish, French and German enable
users to locate each subject.
It is significant that none of the above initiatives is especially concerned with the
pattern of relationships between activities or subjects. The allocation of numbers to
activities is basically arbitrary. The project of Ingetraut Dahlberg, Editor of the
journal International Classification, resulting in the production in 1981 of an Information
Coding Classification (ICC) system (6), therefore merits special attention in a
following section. One of its advantages is the use of a 4-digit code. But one difficulty
in relation to this project is that the schedule of terms has so far only been published
for 3-digits, raising problems in handling other topics with which international bodies
3. Possibilities of an alternative approach
Serious attempts were made to use several of the above schemes in the period 1979-81,
either singly or in combination. For a variety of reasons they proved impractical. The
decision was therefore made to design a new scheme adapted to the specific problem of
handling international organizations and their activities.
Once this decision was taken it created the opportunity of responding to many of the
less apparent constraints encountered when attempting to use the above general schemes.
These have been discussed in a separate paper on anti-developmental biases in thesaurus
design (17), on the occasion of a conference initiated by the Committee on Conceptual and
Terminological Analysis (COCTA).
4. Preliminary design considerations
The point of departure was the system, mentioned above, developed by Ingetraut
Dahlberg, following proposals first made by her in 1971. The general outline
of her ICC scheme may be seen from Figure 1.
The following features of the scheme are of special interest:
- a) It is based on a concern for 'man's ability to perceive the world, and to
construct a system of knowledge units to facilitate his understanding of the world and
communication about its nature' (8, p.6).
- b) It recognizes that the 'structuring of man's knowledge about the world may be
seen as being related to the optical levels of general, world-immanent objects by an
evolutionary sequence which, however, is of a spiralling rather than of a linear
nature' (8, p.7).
- c) It is ordered vertically in terms of 9 optical levels associated with a
progressive complexication of perceived reality:
- Pure forms and structures (magnitudes, proportions)
- Pure matter and energy (atoms, forces, etc)
- Aggregated matter in motion (cosmic bodies)
- Animated, non-intelligent beings (micro-organisms, plants, animals)
- Animated, intelligent beings (individual human beings)
- Aggregated, intelligent beings (human societies)
- Material products (goods and services)
- Intellectual products (documents, information)
- Spiritual products (language, works of art and other meta physical works (8, p.35).
These are distinguished by the first digit of the ICC code.
- d) It is ordered horizontally from the non-fundamental disciplines at each level
(on the left) to those concerned with application of that knowledge (on the right). These
are distinguished by the second digit of the ICC code.
- e) Within any area of the resulting matrix, a structured sequence for the system
positions was applied for the repeatable arrangement of the elements of each group. These
are defined as follows:
- 1. General and theoretical statements (axioms, etc)
- 2. Object-related statements (elements of objects, parts, kinds of object, etc)
- 3. Activity-related statements (states and processes in objects, operations applied to
- 4,5,6. Statements related to specialities of the objects and/or activities concerned in
2 and 3
- 7. Statements on influences onto 2 and 3 from outside ('instru mental',
- 8. Statements on the use of 2 and 3 in other fields ('potential', resource
orientation, application relationship)
- 9. Statements of the knowledge about 2 and 3 in distributing it by human beings,
societies, documents, etc ('actualization', synthesizing, environmental
relationship). These are distinguished by the third digit of the ICC code.
Dahlberg has elaborated, published and applied the scheme (6) using three digits (some
700 classes) and hopes to publish a more extended four-digit version (some 7000
classes) in the future (9).
If the four-digit version had been available it is probable that it would have been
used to design the coding system for international organizations. In experimenting with
the various possibilities however it became apparent that there was a basic awkwardness
and bias in making all the preoccupations of such bodies subservient to
'knowledge' of 'objects'. This problem is particularly striking when a
social reality like 'homelessness' is classified under an intellectual
discipline, namely 'sociology', as in the case of the UNESCO Thesaurus
(10). Similarly a value and condition of fundamental importance like 'peace' is
classified under an intellectual discipline such as 'political science', or,
again, 'friendship', 'love' and 'hatred' are classified
under 'psychology'. Positioning values, conditions and forms of praxis in this
way can be seen as reinforcing the dominance of the knowledge function during a period
when the international community recognizes a need to enhance action, the 'will to
change', as well as the emergence of new values. Many organizations perceive
themselves as concerned with praxis and do not relate directly to the intellectual
disciplines by which their actions are supposedly governed according to university
In the light of the ICC scheme the question then became one of de-emphasizing this bias
in favour of knowledge, whilst at the sametime respecting the concerns reflected in the
ordering of the matrix. One criterion of an interesting matrix, for example, would be the
possibility of mapping onto it at different locations the various agencies and
institutions required for the 'operation' of a country or the world (eg various
government ministries, hospitals, factories, farms, airports, military bases, etc). In
this way the matrix would become a tool reflecting operational reality to a greater
degree, rather than responding primarily to the difficulties of designing information
retrieval systems to facilitate research and the generation of further knowledge.
Another valuable feature of such a matrix would result from ensuring that it told a developmental
'story'. This feature is to some extent present in the ICC matrix in that
the 'lower' optical levels reflect the earlier phases in an evolutionary
process, whilst the 'higher' levels reflect the relatively recent phases of
civilization. But it is possible that a more interesting developmental story (or stories)
could be embedded in the structure of the matrix. This would be especially valuable if it
highlighted the stages at which different functions emerged in society (eg social
organization, mutual care, shelter, artifact construction, etc). As argued in an earlier
paper (7), this implies a dynamic emphasis on processes in contrast to the
conventional static emphasis in classification schemes on states and objects. A number of
authors are now arguing against the insidious effects of static (Euclidean, Newtonian,
Cartesian) descriptions of reality as favoured by the 'Western' mode of thought
(11, 12, 13). It can certainly be argued that this emphasis undermines a dynamic approach
to development (7).
Clearly the above features would emphasize the 'interweaving' of the cells of
the matrix. This approach is to be contrasted with the practice adopted in the design of
many thesauri. So little attention is devoted to the relationship between major classes
that it is easy to get the impression that any such relationship is totally arbitrary -
isolated subject clusters ('science', 'religion', 'art',
'commerce', etc) denoted by digits from 1 to 9, etc. The 'lumping' of major
classes together in this way does not appear to have changed significantly throughout the
history of classification schemes from 1200 BC to the recent initiatives of the
intergovernmental community (14). It is not difficult to argue that it is this
arbitrariness which deprives the pattern of classes of any significance as a whole. As
such it reinforces the fragmentation of society which many authors have deplored, as well
as undermining any efforts towards an 'integrated',
'interdisciplinary' or 'holistic' pattern of action (11).
5. Insights from periodic classification
As a guide to further insights for the design of a more interesting solution, what
appeared to be required was some matrix-type model incorporating developmental features
reflecting the emergence of a series of qualities organized into corresponding
'groups' at a succession of 'levels'. The richest conceptual scheme of
this kind appears to be the periodic table of (chemical) elements. The possibility of
generalizing this periodic system seems first to have been explored by Edward Haskell
(15). Inherent in such a scheme are many interdependency relationships. Furthermore, in
comparing J W van Spronsen's history of the development of the periodic classification
system (16) with that of Samurin's history of the development of the classification of
knowledge in general (17), it is possible to conclude that a scheme such as that of
Dahlberg corresponds in structure to the penultimate development phase prior to the
emergence of the fully fledged periodic system. Many conventional classification schemes
correspond however to much earlier phases in this development with only rudimentary
relationships between major classes.In considering the possibility of such a fully-fledged
periodic system, it is useful to bear in mind the following remark by A J Ihde in the
foreword to van Spronsen's survey:
'Facts soon reach a point where they become less and less manageable unless an
attractive and meaningful system of classification is brought into being... Equally
important is the role of tools in science...
It is frequently not recognized that tools may be conceptual as well as physical...
The Periodic System has fulfilled both of these roles. It has served as a classificatory
device but it has contributed much more than mere classification. It has been a conceptual
tool which has predicted new elements, predicted unrecognized relationships, served as a
corrective device, and fulfilled a unique role as a memory and organization device. The
periodic table has contained an innate flexibility which has prevented it from becoming
frozen into a rigid structure. It lends itself to a large variety of forms.Although many
of these are unique only as schemes representative of the author's originality, certain
forms have unique value in bringing out particular relationships.' (6, p.ix).
On this last point it is striking to compare the range of experiments with
spirals, tables, circles, cones, cylinders and other figures (see Figure
2) in portraying the classification of elements (16) against the seemingly
universal preoccupation with simply structured lists in the case of the classification
of knowledge (14). In this sense the Dahlberg scheme is indeed an exception.
To clarify the discussion it is useful to note how one frequent form of the
periodic table (Figure 3) can also be presented in
another way (Figure 4) which resembles more closely
Dahlberg's ICC scheme. The 'groups' of chemical elements then tend
to appear in columns, analogous to those denoted by the ICC second digit. The
transformation from Figure 3 to Figure
4 clarifies the distinction between two 'sub-groups'. This is
even clearer in a circular form of the table (Figure
The design envisaged was perceived as a compromise between three major
'orientations': production of a practical classified directory; facilitation of
experiments on classifications to develop improved versions; and an emphasis on
incorporating richer patterns of relationships between activities to facilitate
understanding of functional integration. These are detailed separately below.
1. Practical orientation
In the light of the above survey, the factors affecting the design of a practical
system may be summarized as follows:
- a) it should respond to the progressive increase in number of organizations with
b) it should meet the need for a relatively simple classification scheme;
- c) it should facilitate incorporation of changes in organizational activities with the
emergence of new issues (environment, energy, etc);
- d) it should avoid the production delays associated with conven tional methods of
classification, particularly with increasing numbers of organizations and with the change
in their concerns;
- e) in order to facilitate solutions to the above problems, it should use an approach
which could be assisted by computer techniques as much as possible;
- f) finally, and perhaps of greatest importance, it should result in the production of a
practical directory which avoids confronting the average user with levels of significance
or complication not required, even though these features may be present for those who wish
to benefit from them.
2. Experimental orientation
In contrast to most current classification systems, the design should facilitate
classification experiments in the light of the following factors:
- a) it was not intended to produce immediately a 'definitive' clas sification
scheme for international organization activities;
- b) it was expected that different approaches will be explored from edition to edition,
possibly with several approaches in one edition;
- c) the position of classes or sub-classes in any one matrix pattern might be adjusted
between editions in the light of the results to which it gave rise when tested on the
range of international organization activities;
- d) it was expected that refinements to the computer programmes used would lead to more
valuable versions of the scheme;
- e) the flexibility necessary for such an experimental approach should be achieved by
computer-assisted methods of reclassifying the complete range of organizations whenever a
new version of the scheme is required;
- f) as an experimental system, risks would necessarily be taken which might give rise to
errors, but every effort would be made to minimize their significance for users interested
only in the practical value of a given classification scheme.
3. Pattern building orientation
It is hoped that experiments in classifying international organization activities will
be carried out to highlight significant patterns of relationships between them in the
light of the following factors:
- a) an emphasis less on possible bilateral relationships between any two subject areas
(eg medicine and sport) as on portraying the complete range of classes in some
functionally meaningful pattern of relevance to organization activities;
- b) the intention to explore ways of ordering the classes within as many simultaneously
interweaving patterns as proves feasible;
- c) in developing such patterns a major constraint is that of maintain ing and improving
the comprehensibility of any such scheme.
The current procedure resulted from design interaction between the following steps or
1. Activity word list
Since the preoccupation of international organizations extends beyond the ranges of the
specialized thesauri noted above, one point of departure was to extract (by computer) all
significant keywords from the names of organizations listed in the current edition of the Yearbook
of International Organizations. To these were then added words extracted from the
multi-disciplinary publication, Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential
(70), resulting, after suppression of prepositions and other non-essential words, in a
total of some 20,000 words, including 1,000 word pairs (see below, 'Procedural
revision'). A particular merit of this list is its comprehensive coverage of active
concerns of the international community, whether problem, discipline or value oriented.
The computer system is designed so that this list can be re-extracted at any time to
capture new words associated with new organizations or preoccupations.
2. Interrelating major classes
The various international thesauri noted above were used to isolate major classes (eg
science, religion, etc) which have traditionally proved to be a practical basis for
grouping concepts. Particular attention was however paid to 'awkward' classes
which did not fit naturally into such groupings (eg standardization, design, and
systemology are treated as 'general' or 'interdisciplinary' classes in
the case of the Unesco Thesaurus). Also of interest were classes that had for
convenience been forced within other classes even though they represented a relatively
3. Elaborating a matrix of distinctions
Using the major classes derived above in the light of the variety reflected in the
extracted word list, considerable time was spent in juggling items into some sort of
matrix form. This process, as an exercise in design, was very much a blend of science and
art as described in Christopher Alexander's Synthesis of Form (18). The matrix was
not perceived as being a purely logical clustering of fields of knowledge but rather a
pattern of activity domains in which the degree and quality of objectivity varied. The
constraining factors which emerged as useful in this process include the following:
- a) The avoidance of entrapment in a purely linear sequence by somehow including a
non-linear patterning feature. This was achieved by considering neighbouring columns and
rows of the matrix as functional complements of a mutually counterbalancing nature, rather
than simply as members of a logically defined set.
- b) The perception of matrix cells as representing functional domains of which only some
might have a cognitive emphasis. The words that can currently be placed 'in'
such a 'semantic cell' do not therefore necessarily exhaust the meaning that may
come to be associated with that cell. The words are indicators of significance but they do
not delimit it.
- c) Following Dahlberg's approach, the use of rows of the matrix to distinguish different
functional 'levels'. The order is then such that the 'lower' or more
fundamental levels must first 'emerge' prior to the 'higher' levels
for which they provide a foundation. The succession of levels thus constitutes a
- d) At any given level, the representation by the cells of the row in question of a set
of interdependent functional domains whose interaction is essential to the stability of
that level, in effect the expression of one evokes the expression of the others.
- e) The ordering of the cells of the matrix, in the light of the previous points, to go
some way towards reflecting the attitudes and behaviour of those associated with them as
in: the 'pecking order' of the sciences; the 'non-scientific' nature
of certain domains; the less 'concretisable' characteristics of some domains.
- f) When appropriate, the ordering of the cells to reflect the order of
'emergence' of functions, either as they become explicit in a community (in
roles or programmes, for example) or as they can be explained in the stages of some
coherent educational pro gramme.
- g) In contrast with the usual practice in classification schemes, the avoidance of
grouping everything associated with a given subject into a class which primarily reflects
the expression of some intellectual discipline (eg political science, sociology). When
appropriate, words associated with such distinct orientations as social praxis, material
conditions, theoretical approaches, value expression and modes of awareness should be
separated into different levels, although possibly in the same column. Thus
'love', and 'sex' would not necessarily be grouped under
'psychology' (as is done in the Unesco Thesaurus).
- h) Just as the previous point stresses the need to counteract the tendency in favour of
a theoretical emphasis, so attention would be given to counteracting an anthropocentric
emphasis (eg 'fish' as a sub-class of 'agriculture' in the OECD
Macrotheasaurus) or a legalistic emphasis (eg 'prostitution' as a sub-class
of 'crime' in the Unesco Thesaurus).
- i) Distinction would be made between levels constrained by nature or patterns of
behaviour, those at which category boundaries were called into question, and those at
which the initiation of change or development was emphasized. This offers a means of
separating functions concerned with analyzing or reacting to the human environment from
those concerned with various forms of development, whether individual or social.
- j) With regard to the levels related to social praxis, the cells would each be
associated with characteristic institutional features of society such as: government
ministries or portfolios (in simpler and more developed administrations), university
faculties and functionally specific building (eg hospital, factory, military base, school,
- k) The size of the matrix needs to be constrained by its comprehen sibility, as
determined by man's difficulty in dealing with more than approximately seven categories
unless extensive patterning features are incorporated as mnemonic coding devices (32).
There is an obvious practical advantage in computer processing if the cells can be defined
in terms of the decimal system, as in the case of Dahlberg's proposal.
- l) Although the pattern of matrix cells is conceived as being com plete, the
representation of the content of those cells should be open to continuing development.
Thus the range of words reflecting the significance of each such cell may change (aside
from the possibility that words may be allocated to more appropri ate cells). In
particular the cells corresponding to more existential or value-related concerns should be
open to future clarification (possibly in the light of the very extensive Eastern
reflection on such categories). As noted earlier, it is the words signifying dimensions
awkward to associate with the earlier cells which raise the possibility that they should
be associated with some other cell to which few words have been previously allocated. In
this sense, it is the 'earlier' portion of the matrix which is
'complete', whereas the open-endedness is primarily associated with the
The process of distinguishing qualitative attributes and their analogies to one another
bears an interesting resemblance to the documented history of the manner in which chemical
elements were slowly juggled into a meaningful periodic pattern (16). As in that case,
part of the problem lies in the fact that words often refer to qualitative
'compounds' of two or more elements although the distinction between an element
and a compound may well be unclear.
With the switch in emphasis from pure classification to one in which functional
relationships are to be highlighted, it is clear that any resultant matrix can usefully be
compared with models of human social systems. One of the most interesting theoretical
explorations of this kind is the investigation of Erich Jantsch as reflected in three
volumes (19,20,21). The special merit of his approach is that it developed from an initial
involvement in management, planning, systems and the policy sciences, subsequently to
include non-dualistic insights and recognition of the significance of hemispheric
specialization of the brain. In his final work (21), he provides a scientific foundation
for a new world view which emphasizes process over structure, non-equilibrium over
equilibrium, evolution over permanency, and individual creativity over collective
Of special relevance is his elaboration of a number of tabular presentations
which distinguish levels in a manner similar to that advocated here. For example,
one table concerns 'Multi-level planning in relation to a multi-level reality'
in which the levels of planning correspond to different time horizons and different
levels of logic and system paradigms. The five levels he distinguishes are:
resources, products and services, social functions, policy and values (21, p.268).
In an earlier book he has tables organized in terms of areas of 'basic
human experience', namely what we: are, feel, perceive, know, want, conceive
and can do (19, p.235). Information from these tables has been combined into
a modified presentation (see Figure 6).
Jantsch stresses the significance of the new area of systems thinking concerned with
'self-organization' of human systems. In effect his tabular presentations may be
considered as self-organizing patterns of functions. In the presentations in his books
special stress is laid on the relationships between the elements of the table through
feedback loops. It is in this light that it is valuable to explore the organization of the
matrix discussed here. The emergence of classes in the matrix is in this sense an organic
response to the macro-organization of the pattern. The process whereby major classes of
functions emerge (eg 'science', 'education', etc) in society is then a
conceptual equivalent to 'macron' patterning, as described by Ralph Abraham in
one of Jantsch's books (22). Such new order emerges through fluctuation, and it is on the
basis of such fluctuation that the system evolves. One of Jantsch's most important
contributions is to draw attention to the relevance for social systems of Ilya Prigogine's
investigations into this phenomenon (23). It is for this reason that it is considered
desirable to build an element of fluctuation or alternation into the matrix pattern on
which the classification is based (24,25).
As stressed above the classification is designed to be modified. For the 1983-85
editions the design can best be described in terms of the classification matrix
and specifically in terms of the definition of its 'semantic cells'
on the basis of the levels (rows) and columns in Figure 7. As pointed
out above, the choice of levels, columns and cells resulted from an iterative
process aimed at ensuring an interesting and functionally meaningful balance
within the pattern as a whole. As pointed out in an earlier paper (26), this
process could perhaps be best described as analogous to 'tuning' a
'semantic piano'. Clearly different tuning systems are possible, none
of which balances qualities in a totally satisfactory manner. This problem of
balance and tuning has been highlighted elsewhere (27, 28) in an attempt to
reconcile the qualitative results, from different cultures, of exercises in
classifying the same range of attributes into 1,2,3,... or N categories (see
also ref 68). The situation here is of course complicated by the heterogeneous
nature of this approach.
It is for this reason that the level and column headings should be considered as
tentative indications of dimensions that it seemed valuable to distinguish. Similarly the
terms attached to individual 'semantic cells' of the matrix have been selected
as recognizable common terms indicative of some percentage of the significance to be
associated with each such cell. At this stage no attempt has been made to modify the
discipline-oriented terms conventionally used for many common subject areas. The
consequence is that the lower half of the table, at least, has familiarly named major
1. General structure
Before discussing the structure in more detail it is appropriate to note a general
structuring device which has been used. As pointed out above in discussing the work of
Jantsch, there would appear to be value in attempting to 'capture' some aspects
of the alternation on which the organization of self-organizing systems is based. It
provides a means of acknowledging the functional reality of the operational hostility
frequently experienced by those concerned with 'mutually irrelevant' functional
domains (eg science, religion, commerce), whether as expressed in relations between
international agencies, between university faculties or between their departments (28).
This phenomenon is also reflected in the manner in which categories may be conceived or
perceived. For example, current investigations are demonstrating the complementary roles
of modes of perception associated with the right and left hemispheres of the brain (29).
These can be linked to such dichotomies asqualitative/quantitative, art/science,
'soft'/'hard', image/text, context/structure and process/strasis.
Levels 0-7 and columns 1-8 have therefore been organized in an alternating manner to
reflect the extremes of these dichotomies. In levels 8-9 and column 9, areas are reserved
for the 'transcendence' of these dichotomies. Where the row and column
dichotomies do however 'interact', cells of three distinct types are defined:
quantitative/quantitative (crossed cells), qualitative/qualitative (circled cells), and
quantitative/qualitative (unmarked cells). The resulting pattern is an interesting first
approximation, especially when the crossed cells are seen as primarily associated with
well-defined categories and text, whilst the circled cells are seen as primarily
associated with fluidly defined categories and imagery. The unmarked cells are then
associated with a blend of art and science (eg design, artefact production by industry, or
technology as a useful art).
2. Level (row) structure
The levels may first be considered in pairs as: nature (0-1), praxis (2-3), theory
(4-5), developmental principles (6-7), and existential experience (8-9). Here
'nature' is split into the physical sciences and the biosphere.
'Theory' and 'developmental principles' may also be grouped as the
'noosphere'. This approach has the merit of preventing innovative change and
development from being obscured and denatured by including them under descriptive sciences
and theory. It also provides space for the values and experiential conditions in the name
of which change is proposed and implemented, rather that disguising them as the subject
matter of psychology or philosophy.
Levels 0-3 constitute the 'material world', its description, and the more
concrete forms of action in society. Levels 4-7 provide space for the reflections and
interpretations of those acting in the 'material world', whereas levels 8-9
provide space for experience in its own right. As such it is the least tangible but the
most intimate, figuring in much of the current debate on human values and non-material
human needs (30).
Levels 0-1 are also associated with the natural sciences and as such figure prominently
in university departments. Levels 2-3 may be directly related to government agencies,
public services and institutions. Levels 4-5 correspond to the 'soft sciences'
whose subject matter tends to be defined rather than given. It is at levels 6-7 that new
directions of social change are defined.
The reservation of cells in levels 8-9 for values and conditions of awareness must
necessarily be considered extremely tentative given the lack of attention to the problems
of classifying experiences in their own right.
3. Column structure
The columns may also be first considered in pairs in terms of a possible set of
(social) patterning implications: establishment and consolidation (1-2), maintenance and
appreciation (3-4), adaptation and propagation (5-6), and innovation and exploitation
(7-8). Column 9 is concerned with the resulting symmetry or imbalance. Column 0 is used
for formal concepts calling for qualifiers.
Taken singly the columns may be tentatively described as follows: domain definition
(1), organized relations (2), differentiated order (3), contextual renewal (4), controlled
movement (5), communication reinforcement (6), redistribution of resources (7), and
environmental manipulation (8). Needless to say, such descriptions are indicative rather
4. Individual cells
In the matrix some cells call for special comment:
- Fundamental sciences (00): The special situation of the 'fundamental
sciences', including mathematics, physics and chemistry, can be usefully
modelled by the peculiar situation at the beginning of the periodic table
of chemical elements (see Figure 3 and Figure
4). Without stressing the resemblance, special status has been given here
to '00' treating it as a kind of formal precondition or 'pre-level'.
Within it are to be found the fundamentals of relationship (as partly reflected
in mathematics) and of matter (as partly reflected in physics and chemistry).
- Society (21): This is distinguished from sociology (41) to separate the function
of reflection about society from the entities acting within society. Note that such a
separation is not called for with respect to levels 0 and 1, in which the subjects of
attention are to a much greater extent taken as given.
- Health care (32): Treatment in general, and its necessary infrastructure, is
distinguished from the analysis of disease under medicine (18).
- Societal problems (29): This is used to group problems of imbalance in the
functioning of society, including crimes and disasters. It also includes preventive
measures such as safety and hygiene.
- Science (51): This includes science in the broadest sense (eg humanistic
sciences) as well as science as a phenomenon in its own right (science of science) and as
such is appropriately distinguished from the natural sciences (levels 0-1).
5. 'Harmonic' relationships
Given the alternation of levels, although semantic cells in the same column have
qualities in common, the relationships between those in odd-numbered levels or in
even-numbered levels is stronger. This is most evident from the second level. For example:
religious practice (36), theology (56), morals and ethics (76), transcendence (96). This
series clearly goes from tangible manifestations of religion, through associated beliefs,
to transcendent experience. In this sense the cells in the higher levels bear a
'harmonic' relationship to those in the lower ones.
6. Complementary relationships
The set of cells at any given level can be seen as representing functional
complementaries. The expression of one in a society calls for the expression of the others
to complement or counter-balance that function. This is most clearly seem at levels 2 and
3. Each function would seem to be necessary for the society to be viable at that level,
whatever the views of those who identify with the categories of a particular function. For
example, despite the words chosen to label cells 31 ('research, standards') and
36 ('religious practice'), a society will engender an investigative,
'normalizing' function, as well as some measure of ceremonial, even if it is
only to celebrate secular values.
7. 'Empty' cells
It is important to emphasize that although most cells have words associated with them,
those words may only signify a very small percentage of the meaning that could come to be
associated with the cell. In this sense many of the cells are effectively
'empty', especially those at the less tangible levels (from 4-9), as well as
those in column 9.
Given the importance attached to guidance from the historical development of the
periodic table, empty cells can be welcomed as a provocative challenge. Cell 52 may be
expected to correspond (in part) to the theory of health care and health improvement (as
opposed to the treatment of disease), given that cell 72 corresponds (in part) to
sensitivity training of an individual in groups. Cell 62 may be expected to correspond to
enlightened management techniques in which the worker-employer relationships is redefined
in a new form of partnership. Cell 78 may be expected to correspond (in part) to
enlightened forms of agriculture, such as organic farming and similar experiments.
Initial word coding (1983)
Using the computer-extracted word list (at that time containing 11,000 items)
a procedure was adopted for the 1983 edition whereby significant words were
first given a 2-digit code according to Figure 7 [Integratrive
Matrix]. After resorting, these words could then be regrouped within each
semantic cell taking into account their frequency of occurrence, namely the
number of organizations with a particular preoccupation. Sub-classes were thus
created using a 3rd and 4th digit, resorting whenever a new overview of the
result was required. In the final run some 7,500 words were used, the remainder
being proper names or insignificant, or else having too many distinct connotations
Clearly allocating a single code to a word assumes that a given word cannot be
associated with several semantic cells. This is certainly not true in the case of
homonyms. But given the practical orientation of this project, the question is whether it
produces a useful result in a sufficiently high percentage of cases. If obvious mismatches
do result but the user can easily eliminate them by visual inspection, then the approach
continues to have merit. Such mismatches are after all inherent in current word-oriented
information retrieval systems in which the user is obliged to filter what is supplied. The
allocation of codes to single words (eg 'economic' or 'development')
rather than to multi-word terms (eg 'economic development') has advantages and
disadvantages. It increases the problem noted in the previous paragraph, since qualifiers
reduce the incidence of mismatches. It does however create the possibility of highlighting
links between distinct semantic cells, namely interdisciplinary or inter-functional links.
This is discussed further below.
Recalling the periodic table once again, a basic difficulty in elaborating it was that
for centuries the distinction between a chemical element and a compound of several
chemical elements could not always be clearly established. As a result attempts were made
to classify compounds on the basis of their properties which were thus confused with those
of chemical elements. It was consequently difficult to produce a meaningful table. It
would seem that a very similar problem exists in elaborating a classification scheme for
the societal functions with which international organizations are associated. There is a
need to distinguish between those which can be considered as 'elements' and
those which should be treated as 'compounds' of such functional elements.
Although only in the first stages of its elaboration, this is the intended distinction
between Section W and Section X.
The question is obviously not just one of considering single words as denoting such
functional elements. Many such single words, even when they are not compounds in their own
right (eg psychosocial), should appear only in Section X because of their multi-functional
nature. Further attention will continue to be given to this problem in future editions.
At this stage there is clearly a problem in determining whether it is more appropriate
to associate the word 'art', for example, with its manifestations in
performances and works (eg level 3), the intellectual study of it (eg level 5), its
transformative function (eg level 7), or the experience of artistic creativity (eg level
9). These of course bear a harmonic relationship to one another as discussed above, but
the word 'art' may be used indiscriminately to describe all of them. Indeed it
could be considered a compound of them which could be more appropriately located within
the framework of Section X. Such distinctions have been made wherever possible in order to
highlight the functional significance of levels 6 to 9. A balance was however sought
between emphasizing this harmonic spread and locating the word where the user might expect
to find it in the light of past classification schemes.
In contrast to Dahlberg's approach discussed earlier, the organization of the word
coding within the semantic cells is not systematic at this stage. Grouping within the
cells has often been done on the basis of word frequency. In the case of levels 8 and 9,
no grouping has been attempted within the cells. It is hoped that for a future edition the
organization within the 2-digit cells can be made analogous to that within the matrix as a
whole. This would, for example, make it possible to distinguish at levels 8 or 9 between
values and experience which are more concrete and those which are more transcendental.
Initial section generation (1983-85)
Once the word coding was complete for what then constituted a computer-based thesaurus,
this was used to determine with which codes each organization should be associated. Here a
distinction must be made between the three main sections of this volume (W, X, and Y).
Where only one code was associated with an organization, the latter was allocated to
Section W, X or Y, depending upon the letter associated with that code in the thesaurus.
Where several codes were associated with an organization, that organization was allocated
to all the corresponding categories in the volume. In addition the codes were combined to
select 'interfunctional' preoccupations with which the organizations could be
associated in the categories of Section X. The 'combination' has been done on
the following basis. If the codes for the organization all corresponded to the same
2-digit semantic cell, they were not combined. Where the first two digits of codes were
different, they were combined. For example: W3310 ('schools') and W3900
('law') were combined to create the additional codes X3339
('schools/law') and X3933 ('law/schools'). If in addition the code
Y5000 ('Europe') was present, then additional codes Y5039
('Europe/law') and Y5033 ('Europe/education') were generated. On the
basis of these, the organization name/address entry was allocated to the relevant
categories in the different sections of this volume.
Where the kinds of keywords in the name of an organization made the above procedure
inadequate, was supplemented or by-passed by the traditional form of 'manual'
allocation of codes directly to the individual organization rather than to words in the
thesaurus (eg in the case of 'trade unions', or 'international
relations'). The finalsorting of the individual entries into sections was then
completed by computer up to and including the generation of photocomposition pages ready
Procedural revision (1984-1985)
The results of the above exercise were reproduced in the first edition of Global
Action Networks in 1983. As planned, those results were reviewed as part of the
production of subsequent editions.
In 1985 the thesaurus was automatically extended from 11,000 to 13,604 words by
incorporating words from names of new international organizations and world problems.
Nearly 8,000 words received subject allocation codes placing them in the active part of
the thesaurus. The major modification made was to remove limitations in the computer
programme used to identify words on the basis of which subject codes were associated with
Three techniques were used to reduce the percentage of mis-allocations:
- a) Words generating an excessive number of mis-allocations were eliminated from the
active part of thesaurus. In 1984 85 words, and in 1985 60 words were treated in this way
(respectively 1.2 and 0.7 percent of the active thesaurus).
- b) The mis-allocation of specific subject codes to some selected organizations was
inhibited. In 1984 390, and in 1985 504 such allocations were treated in this way
(respectively 2 and 6.4 per cent of the active thesaurus).
- c) Allocation of some subject codes to specific organizations was forced where it would
not normally have occurred. In 1984 145, and in 1985 545 allocations were forced in this
way (respectively 0.7 and 2.6 percent of the organization allocations). In addition some
subject groups, not well defined by particular words, were deliberately created in this
way (eg 'religious orders', 'trade unions', 'regional
studies', 'intergovernmental organizations').
The pattern of codes in the matrix was reviewed, and in 1985 37 changes were made.
Aside from the changes noted above, of the 8,000 words in the active thesaurus, code
changes were made to 50 of them (0.6 percent) in 1984, and to 201 of them (2.5 percent) in
1985. Some modifications to levels 8 and 9, the most difficult area of the matrix, were
made in the light of work on 'human values' and 'states of
consciousness' for the 1986 edition of the Encyclopedia of World Problems and
Human Potential (70). Work on other sections of the Encyclopedia was also
incorporated, updating the information included in the 1983 edition drawn from the 1976 Yearbook
of World Problems and Human Potential.
Procedural revision (1986-1987)
Following the 1985 revision two developments resulted in further modifications to the
procedures used. The first of these was the transfer of the database onto an in-house
local area network with many more software possibilities, in addition to those which were
specially designed to facilitate production of this particular publication. In 1986 these
procedures were further rationalized and modified to remove system errors. The second
development was the completion of the 1986 edition of the Encyclopedia of World
Problems and Human Potential, from which information on world problems, strategies and
values was drawn in order to clarify their relationships to the fields of international
The main modifications were therefore as follows:
- a) Whereas the previous editions have been based on the allocation of subject codes
based on single words, the software has since been developed to permit subject coding
based on word pairs in an organization title. In 1986, approximately 1,000 such word pairs
were added to the thesaurus to avoid the earlier need for manual intervention to resolve
such coding problems as 'flying saucers' or 'brain drain'; in 1987 500
word pairs were added.
- b) Whereas in the previous editions the subject codes allocated for a single
organization were based on the title only, the software was developed in 1986 to permit
the allocation of codes to specially italicized words text in the 'Aims'
paragraph of the description in Volume 1. (The resulting entries are flagged in Section W
to distinguish them from those arising from the title of the organization.) In 1987
Sections X and Y also included entries generated through allocation of codes via keywords
in the 'Aims' paragraph.
- c) Because of the cruder procedures employed in the past, many words had been maintained
in the inactive portion of the thesau rus to prevent them from generating ambiguous or
misleading subject codes. With the above-mentioned procedures these inactive words were
reviewed and some 1,000 were activated for the 1986 edition, and several hundred more in
- d) The new software permitted a much more flexible approach to any necessary fine-tuning
of the pattern of allocated codes. A more sophisticated approach was possible to forcing
the allocation of codes (whether forcing into a subject area or out of it). With the
introduction of word pairs into the thesaurus, fewer such interventions were necessary.
- e) Relatively few changes were made to the central portion of the code matrix (Rows 0
through 6); some 200 words were transferred to new codes. Major changes however were made
to Rows 7, 8 and 9, as part of the continuing exploration of ways of incorporating human
values and strategies in the light of the work on the 1986 Encyclopedia of World
Problems and Human Potential. Given the inherently ambiguous nature of the words
associated with those rows of the matrix, a much higher proportion of words was forceably
associated with particular codes, partly in an effort to take advantage, at least
provisionally, of the groupings which emerged in the Encyclopedia. In particular the 1986
edition explored the use of polarities as categories whereby values or strategies can be
grouped. This approach offers some advantages in handling words which are usually an
embarrassment to any scheme of subjects, despite the importance attached by society to the
concepts to which they may refer. The value and strategy polarities of the Encyclopedia
(Sections VP and SP) were therefore used as categories in Rows 7 and 8 in the 1986
edition. In the case of the 2,000 value words from Sections VC and VD of the Encyclopedia,
which are grouped under one (but usually more) of these polarities, these were forced into
the relevant categories on the basis of the information in the Encyclopedia. This
procedure was also adopted for the strategies arising from Sections SS and ST of the
Encyclopedia. In this case however the allocation to a polar category was based only on
the gerund term used in the strategy to emphasize the activity inherent in it. Any other
words resulted in the allocation of the strategy to other subject codes as in the case of
- f) In 1987 work continued on rationalizing rows 7, 8 and 9. The value and strategy
polarities (Sections VP and SP of the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential)
continued to be used as categories in rows 7 and 8, with value words from Sections VC and
VD being grouped under the row 8 polarities and strategies form sections SS and ST under
row 7 polarities. To improve transparency, all other row 7 and 8 headings were grouped as
W70 or W80 terms; organizations, problems or strategies indexed under such headings
therefore appear together, rather than interspersed with strategy and value polarities. In
line with the structural philosophy of the matrix, the third digit of the heading code
reflects the overall headings of the matrix columns. A number of minor changes were made
to the central portion of the code matrix.
- g) The basic organization of the major sections (W,X and Y) of the 1986 volume remained
the same. In 1986 Section Z was added to group types of organizations. In the few cases
where such types were already allocated to particular codes, it was appropri ate to move
them to this new section.
- h) The Citation index, previously published as an Appendix, was omitted in 1987.
This is because a revision of Volume 1 has led to cited organizations being listed,
together with their Yearbook reference numbers, in the descriptions of organizations
In 1986 the thesaurus contained 20,000 words, including 1,000 word pairs. Of these some
9,000 words were inactive in that they did not result in the allocation of codes leading
to the incorporation of an entry at some place in this volume. The thesaurus was therefore
increased by 6396 words since the 1985 edition. In 1987 the thesaurus contained over
23,000 words, including 1,500 word pairs. Of these some 11,000 words were inactive.
Overall, there was an increase of 3,000 index terms since the 1986 edition.
Procedural revision (1988)
The main innovation this year was the inclusion of a proportion of items from the Human
Development section (Section H) of the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human
Potential (1986, second edition), as a result of work for the forthcoming third
edition of the Encyclopedia. This section is in two parts - human development concepts
(sub-section HH) and modes of awareness (sub-section HM). The parts have been treated
differently. The 635 items from the human development concepts part have beenincluded in
Section W, the subject section, being treated in an exactly similar manner as the
problems. They have not, however, been included in the subject combination section,
Section X; and, not being geographical in nature, they have not been included in Section
Y. Of the nearly 1,000 modes of awareness, over 300 have been coded to appear in the top
row of the subject matrix, that concerned with awareness. The codes have been assigned on
the basis of the philosophy behind the choice of matrix columns as described above. Row 9
of the matrix has been rationalized along the lines adopted for rows 7 and 8 in 1987. That
is to say, the modes of awareness are grouped under row 9 polarities 1 to 9, while
organizations, problems, strategies and human development concepts otherwise appearing in
row 9 are grouped together in column 0, the third digit of the heading code reflecting the
overall headings of the matrix columns.
The modes so far included are those which are most readily considered individually.
Work continues on grouping the remaining modes, which already form part of well recognized
series. The task is to arrange the series in a meaningful manner within the constraints of
the matrix structure.
Other modifications in 1988 have focused on further refining the thesaurus. Among the
2,500 'active' terms included since the last edition are a number of
abbreviations, proper names and non-English words. These are not included in the subject
index at the beginning of the volume, as they are not considered helpful in this respect;
however, they do increase the accuracy of coding and should improve the quality of
information offered. An additional 1,500 completely new terms have been added to the
thesaurus in 1988, and 225 paired terms. The thesaurus now includes nearly 24,500 terms,
of which 14,500 are active. Further minor changes have also been made to the matrix; and
Section Z now lists international conference series and international agreements and
Procedural revision (1989)
A massive expansion of the thesaurus has been undertaken, with the inclusion of terms
from the text of organization and problems descriptions. There are now over 51,500 terms
in the thesaurus, of which some 22,500 are active. A particular innovation is the
additional inclusion of major subject terms in other languages - notably French, Spanish,
German and Russian - with a view to enhancing this volume as an index to Volume 1. The
intention is to make Volume 3 a more specific means of access to organizations, replacing
some of the functions of the index to Volume 1 which has, in consequence, been
As an additional cross-referencing tool and to assist in identifying organizations
whose exact title is unknown, the subject headings and index words in Volume 3 are now
also indicated in the index to Volume 1, the former in English, French, Spanish, German
As an aid in tracing terms in Russian, these terms are included under two different
systems of transliteration. Another aid to tracing organizations is the entry Z6300 in Z
section, which lists organizations whose titles contain proper names.
Since work is still in progress on the new edition of the Encyclopedia of World
Problems and Human Potential, it is not considered useful this year to include the
entries from the Human Development Section, nor the Strategies or Values. This has allowed
sufficient space for items from Section G of Volume 1 (internationally oriented national
bodies) to be included in Section X of Volume 3 for the first time in several years.
The world problems included this time are those for which it is expected a full
description will be published in the new edition. The section code for the world problems
(second letter of the reference number) is the result of preliminary work on classifying
the problems according to their nature and to the breadth of their coverage.The order in
which entries are printed under the subject headings has been altered. Previously, entries
were quoted alphabetically within the sections in which they appeared in Volume 1 or in
The order has now been simplified so that entries appear within alphabetical order of
title independent of the section in which they appear. However, organizations still appear
before entries from the Encyclopedia. Their reference numbers are preceded by a figure 1,
while Encyclopedia entries are preceded by a figure 4.
Procedural revision (1990)
As well as a further large increase in the active terms in the thesaurus, and matching
increases in paired terms, a major innovation isthe further expansion of the index. This
now includes not only thesaurus terms relating to Volume 3 but a keyword index (in English
and French) to organizations in Volume 1. The index of Volume 3 (this volume) is therefore
a means of direct entry to the organizations in Volume 1. In order to allow space for this
longer index, Section X has been amended. In previous editions, the largest and smallest
'mirror-image' entries were omitted. In this edition, all
'mirror-image' entries are omitted, although headings are included with an
indication of where to find the information (see the introduction to Section X). Again,
for space reasons, the strategies, values and human development sections of the Encyclopedia
of World Problems and Human Potential have not been included. The thesaurus now
contains 53,434 terms, of which 24,405 are active, and includes 2,325 paired terms.
Procedural revision (1991)
The main effort this year has been the manual forcing in/out of entries under the
various subject codes where ambiguities of meaning (often arising from non-English titles)
have caused mis-coding. In addition, the expanded index (again including keywords from
rotated English and French titles) has been made more easy to use. As was the case for
1990, 'mirror image' entries in Section X have been omitted, but headings are
included, together with an indication of where to find the information. The thesaurus has
increased by 2,327 terms to a total of 55,761. Of these, 25,131 are active, an increase of
726. There are 2,627 paired terms.
Procedural revision (1992)
As indicated in Appendix 1, 'New Features 1992/1993', all three volumes of
the Yearbook have been rearranged to simplify access. They now list all entries in
alphabetical order. The previous sections W, Y and Z of Volume 3 have been combined into
one continuous alphabetic sequence by major subject/regional categories, subdivided by
suject categories also in alphabetical order, with interleaved subject indicators
directing the user to the entry required. Volume 1, now also being in alphabetical order,
is considered an index in itself, but detailed index entries (alternative and former
titles/initials, executive offcers' names) now appear in the index to this Volume. This
index now becomes the main index for the whole Yearbook. To allow space for this expanded
index, Section X: subject combinations (already much reduced in previous years) has been
omitted entirely from this edition. The thesaurus has increased by 1,252 terms to a total
of 57,013. Of these 26,915 are active, an increase of 1,784. There are 2,884 paired terms,
an increase of 457 over last year.
Note that statistical tables (Appendix 3) still refer to the old W, Y and Z sections
and may be compared with statistics from previous years. Statistics for section X are not
published this year.
Procedural revision (1993)
Building upon the changes of last year, several items have been rationalized to avoid
repetition. New items have been added, including a list of UNESCO bodies (under
Culture/UNESCO Bodies). Considerable effort has gone into improving the multilingual
character of the thesaurus used for coding and indexing. This has resulted in an increase
of 14,851 words over last year (71,864 words altogether). Work is continuing on coding
these new words. Currently there are 26,515 non-English or English/other languague words
and word-pairs in the thesaurus, of which 11,740 have subject codes. In total there are
31,539 active words (an increase of 4,624 over last year). There are 3,222 word-pairs (an
increase of 338). Another innovation is the inclusion of founding personalities in the
index. This work is also continuing. Eliminated from the index are the thesaurus words not
occurring as title or keywords in organizations or world problems.
Procedural revision (1994)
The main emphasis this year has again been the building up of the thesaurus with
non-English words occuring in organization titles and descriptions. A further 3,859 such
words have been added, 14.6% more overall than the already expanded thesaurus of 1993.
There are now 30,374 non-English or multiple-language words, of which 13,578 have
meaningful codes (a 15.7% increase over 1993). In all there are 82,682 words in the
thesaurus, including 3,370 word pairs, 34,030 of the words having meaningful codes. A
major change in 1994 is the removal of items from the Encyclopedia of World Problems
and Human Potential. These will now appear in their ownsubject index as part of Volume
3 of the new edition of the Encyclopedia, this volume being entitled Actions -
Strategies -Solutions and planned to be published in 1995. The removal of these items
has provided the opportunity, through increased space, to expand the index (now 38,554
entries), which for the first time in several years includes reference to the countries in
Volume 2 of the Yearbook as well as items from currently inactive and from newly
founded organizations. It has also allowed inclusion in the main body of the volume of,
for example, listings of individual membership bodies.
Procedural revision (1995)
The thesaurus has been augmented considerably this year, largely from the new
strategies volume of the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential. There are
currently 87,075 words, an increase of 5.3% on last year, and this is expected to increase
further in the near future, both from the strategies volume and from the new French
language edition of the Yearbook to appear shortly on CD-Rom. Work is going ahead on
coding these words. There are currently 34,646 words with codes leading to the subject
index, 13,798 of which are in a language other than English. Amendments to the subject
classification itself include a new heading 'Law/Prohibition' and the splitting
of 'Societal Problems/Safety' to include additional items 'Societal
Problems/Prevention' and 'Societal Problems/Accidents'.
Procedural revision (1996)
A significant further increase in the thesaurus took place this year in conjunction
with the preparation of a French-language version of the Yearbook on CD-Rom. There are
currently 98,166 words in the thesaurus, an increase of 12.7% on last year. Of these,
39,575 are non-English and/or multiple language words, an increase of 26.1% in one year.
Nearly 2,000 words were subject coded this year, with 36,630 now leading to the subject
index - an increase of 5.7%. Much of the increase was in the French and other non-English
words, 15,279 of these now leading to the index (1,581 coded during the year). Amendments
to the classification include a new heading 'Exchanges' under
'Communication' (largely transferring from 'Social
Activity/Friendship', a new heading 'Victims' under 'Societal
Problems', the transfer from 'Geography/Resources' to the main heading
'Resources' of much that relates to natural resources; and the rationalization
of several organization 'types' to appear within the relevant subject areas
(notably 'Exile Bodies', which are now listed under 'Society/Exiles',
together with other organizations dealing with the subject which were previously listed
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