Challenges to Comprehension Implied by the Logo
of Laetus in Praesens
University of Earth Alternative view of segmented documents via Kairos

1998

Discovering Richer Patterns of Comprehension to Reframe Polarization

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[2-phase] [4-phase] [8-phase] [16-phase] [32-phase] [64-phase] [Notes] [References]


2-phase comprehension

 
Possession (of). Ownership. "Mine -- it belongs to me; it is known thru me". Others have no ownership rights. Unification, order, integration, focus, agreement, defined,  aligned. Right. Linear time. Scheduling. "My time and agenda". Certainty, impatience, consistency, constraint, imposition.
Non-possession. Possession (by). Non-ownership. "Not mine -- I am identified thru it; I belong to it". Possessed or owned by another. Diversity, fragmentation, disagreement, enrichment, adulteration, unbound,  non-aligned. Obligation. Poly-time; diversity of times. Shared (permeable)  time and agendas. Uncertainty, patience, inconsistency, acceptance, unconstrained, adaptive.
 

4-phase comprehension

 
Total possession. "Mine in body and soul" (as with slave ownership, and certain understandings of marital relationship). Traditional citizen -- loyal in body and spirit. "My land" -- wholly owned. Meaning what is said. Affirmation [K]. Homogenistic, hierarchical, classificational [H]. Thinking-Sensing [C] Scheduled (predictable) in principle and in practice. Rail-roading. "My time and and agenda". Anglo-Saxon rendez-vous. Living for the future.
Possession "of the body", but "not of the spirit" (as with attitude of employees concerning relationships with their employers). Tax payer, but having no other allegiance to the country (as with some immigrants). Right of use of (rented) land -- owned by another. Ambiguity of what is said. Neither affirmation nor negation [K]. Heterogenistic, interactive, morphogenetic [G]. Feeling-Sensing [C] Scheduled (predictable) in practice, but not in principle. Work slavery whilst the elites do play. Emerging organization.
Owned "in spirit", though not "in body". Spiritual affiliation, but no material rights or involvement (as with the allegiance of some disenfranchised Commonwealth citizens). "My land" -- rented or occupied by another. Contrasting expressions of a common meaning. Both affirmation and negation [K]. Heterogenistic, interactive, homeostatic [S]. Thinking-Intuition [C] Scheduled (principle) in principle, but not in practice. "When the cat's away, the mice do play". Latin rendez-vous. Scheduled recreation. Flexi-time, time-sharing, taking turns.
Owned, neither "in body", nor "in spirit". Stateless, disaffected, free spirits, citizens of convenience. Neither "mine", nor "mine to use". De-linking of what is said from what is meant. Negation [K]. Heterogenistic, individualistic, random [ I ]. Feeling-Intuition [C]   Unscheduled (unpredictable) in principle and in practice. Spontaneity. Hanging-out. Shared agendas and times. Living the moment.
 
 

8-phase comprehension

 
Full and unchallenged possession -- physical, emotional and intellectual.  Citizen (voter), loyal sympathizer, resident (taxpayer, owner, employee). Identity (in meaning, pronunciation, spelling) Scheduled life -- physically, emotionally and intellectually (ideologically). Directed, goal committed. Established pattern.
Physical possession, but no freedom of use. A  
waiting room chair, a borrowed object that can only be used in pre-determined ways. "You can hold it for a while". Right of way, transient. Tourism -- beholding -- strip tease show. Occupancy of institutions: refugee camp, prison, many work environments. Occupancy of the land to which others are attached and claim. Non-citizen (non-voter), no allegiance, resident (taxpayer, owner, employee). Heterophonic homonym (different meanings and pronunciation, same spelling: "rows")
Physical routine (predictability), but exploring (open to) alternative emotional and intellectual (ideological) foci. Ideologically and emotionally "free" (adventuresome,  "promiscuous").
Neither "mine", nor can I possess it physically -- but my emotional bond to it overrides such concerns: an old tree in my village square; a favourite  painting (in a gallery); a daily-encountered favoured person, a bond to historic sites or viewscapes, unrequited love; or coveted object. Non-citizen (non-voter), loyal sympathizer, non-resident (taxpayer, owner, employee). Homophonic homonym (different meanings and spellings, same pronunciation: "peace" and "piece") Emotionally committed (predictable), but exploring (open to) intellectual (ideological) and physical alternatives. Ideologically and physically free ("promiscuous") 
Property that is "mine" by right, to which I have no emotional attachment, and which is held or used by others. The perspective of many absentee landlords -- "do with it what you will, but pay the rent". Citizen (voter), non-sympathizer, non-resident (taxpayer, owner, employee). Synonym (same meaning, different spelling and pronunciation: "rows" and "tiers") Intellectually (ideologically) committed (predictable), but exploring (open to) physical and emotional alternatives. Physically and emotionally free ( "promiscuous"), within an unchanging set of values
Not "mine" in any respect. Something held and controlled in every respect by others. Non-citizen (non-voter), non sympathizer, non-resident (taxpayer, owner, employee). Heterolog (different meanings, pronunciations and spellings: "rows" and "frogs")  _  _ 
Uncommitted (unpredictable) -- exploring (open to) physical, emotional and intellectual (ideological) alternatives. Undirected. "Dilettante". Sustained by ("at the mercy of") the world.
"My" property, to which I am sentimentally attached -- but used by another (whether rented or occupied). Citizen (voter), loyal sympathizer, non-resident (taxpayer, owner, employee). Homophonic synonym (same meaning, different pronunciation and spellings: "gray" and "grey") Intellectually (ideologically) and emotionally committed, but exploring (open to) physical alternatives. Physically unpredictable ( "promiscuous"). Conventional adventure tourist.
"My" property, which I currently occupy, but to which I have no sentimental attachment (as with some disaffected hereditary landowners obliged to remain residents). Property which I am obliged to keep. Citizen (voter), non-sympathizer, resident (taxpayer, owner, employee). Polyphone (same meaning and spelling, different pronunciation: "the")  ___ 
Intellectual (ideological) and physical  routine, but exploring (open to) emotional alternatives. Emotionally free ("promiscuous").
Possessed physically and sentimentally, but without full right of ownership, as in the case of a long-term lease. No intellectual copyright to reproduce a design. Final say is elsewhere, as with a Privy Council (in the case of some Commonwealth countries). Non-citizen (non-voter), loyal, resident (taxpayer, owner, employee). Homographic homonym (different meanings, same pronunciation and spellings: "rose" and "rose") Established physical and emotional routine, but exploring (open to) intellectual (ideological) alternatives. "Conventional", but intellectually curious. Ideologically free ("promiscuous"); open to shifts of paradigms (belief systems).
 

16-phase comprehension

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Uncontested possession and control without any openness to alternative challenges and perspectives. ___ 
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Control of territory and dominant paradigm, but without evoking any sympathy or intellectual support. ___ 
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Control of dominant paradigm and evoking sympathetic support, but without intellectual support or possession of territory. ___ 
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Control of dominant paradigm, with intellectual support, but without evoking sympathy or possessing territory. ___ 
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Control of dominant paradigm, but without intellectual support, evoking sympathy or controlling territory.  ___ 
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Control of dominant paradigm, with intellectual support and evocation of sympathy, but without possession of territory ___ 
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Control of dominant paradigm, with intellectual support and control of territory, but without sympathetic support.   ___ 
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Control of dominant paradigm, with sympathetic appeal and control of territory, but without intellectual support. As with the erosion of religious institutions due to the rise of science.  ___ 
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Intellectual and sympathetic support, together with control of territory, but without control of dominant paradigm. _  _ 
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Possession of territory, but without sympathetic appeal, intellectual support or control of dominant paradigm. _  _ 
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Sympathetic support, but challenged (attracted) by alternative paradigms and intellectual frameworks, and without control of territory. _  _ 
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Challenged (attracted) by alternative paradigms, appeals for sympathetic support and lack of territory, but having intellectual support. _  _ 
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Challenged (attracted) by alternative paradigms, intellectual frameworks and appeals for sympathy, and lacking any control of territory.  _  _ 
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Challenged (attracted) by alternative paradigms, without any control of territory, but having intellectual and sympathetic support. _  _ 
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Challenged (attracted) by alternative paradigms and appeals for support, but having intellectual support and control of territory.  _  _ 
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Challenged (attracted) by alternative paradigms and intellectual frameworks, but having control of territory with sympathetic support.   _  _ 
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Notes

1. The right hand column of examples focuses on time and how processes are experienced and navigated -- the left on space, territory and how objects are defined, possessed and used.

2. The symbols all function as active hyperlinks through which each phase can be explored, especially to follow what happens if a condition changes (from broken line to unbroken line, for example -- click on the line you want changed)

3. Despite the apparent rigidity of the framework, an exercise such as the above is necessarily tentative in its development and interpretation.

4. Any polarity may be projected onto the above framework as a means of opening out richer patterns of interpretation of it.

5. Whether the assumed positively weighted pole of a polarity is associated with the unbroken line or with the broken line, is a fundamental but arbitrary choice (cf. the work of Xavier Sallantin), although -- once made -- should be adhered to throughout the framework. Thus in projecting "positive" onto the framework, it may either be associated with a single, unbroken line (alignment), or with a broken line (perhaps derived from the two lines making up the "plus" sign). Distinguishing "positive" and "negative" electricity is also based on such an arbitrary convention. In the illustrative comments, terms interpreted as having positive connotations could as well be accompanied by their antonyms -- or be interpreted in terms of their negative connotations.

6. It is also arbitrary whether the line-structure elements are understood as being built "upwards" from the more tangible dimensions (a common preference) or "downwards".

7. The particular way that the projection is made onto the framework is, in principle, already encoded within the framework. Imposition is one style. Endeavouring to "grasp" the resulting significance is another. Apparently "negative" values may also be understood in terms of "positive" attributes, just as "positive" values may be interpreted as having "negative" attributes. This is especially the case across cultures and gender-associated categories.

8. One key to further understanding is to play with the variants, rather than endeavouring to prioritize them in a particular and definitive way. It is how they play off against each other that is the carrier of richer understanding. In this sense the framework is rather like a musical instrument on which a player may become skilled. The higher patterns then offer more complex chords to the player.

9. How others respond to the framework can usefully be understood within the framework -- since it can be used to encode agreement and disagreement and the many ways that they can be combined.

10. The simpler systems of the framework encode more profound insights that are more difficult to fully comprehend.

11. The patterns indicate behaviours that are often extremely obvious and concrete, and well known to many, whether or not such behaviours also have more profound or wider implications.

12. The examples given are necessarily indicative and far from exhaustive or definitive. It is for users to refine and extend the interpretations according to their understanding.

13. Comprehending the relationships between the space and time interpretations is to some degree constrained by a form of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle: the clearer the spatial interpretation, the more elusive the time interpretation; the clearer the time interpretation, the more elusive the spatial interpretation. The work of Garrison Sposito (1969) on the operation of uncertainty in the social sciences has been reviewed elsewhere.

14. Especially interesting is the use of the framework to explore polarization across cultural perspectives, such as between Western and Eastern perspectives, between contemporary and traditional perspectives, or between "mainstream" (majority) or "marginalized" (minority) perspectives. The unbroken line, for example, can then be used to signify Western (or contemporary) mindsets and the broken line can be used to signify Eastern (or indigenous) mindsets. Preferences for the "unbroken" over the "broken" may then become more apparent than in contemporary Western dialogue -- raising the challenge of what the other conditions can mean for those who recognize, or live by, them. There is some irony to the fact that it these alternative perspectives have in many respects been "broken" by contemporary Western paradigms.

15. As with the 64-phase I Ching, although each condition can be explored through line-by-line analysis (as with the notes making up a chord), the quality of meaning carried by the condition as a whole is especially significant. Such a synthesis is however elusive and frequently only susceptible to representation by metaphor.

Relationship to other initiatives

1. Stephane Lupasco (1973), Archie Bahm (1977) and Solomon Marcus (1982) have all explored the challenges of  2-phase comprehension (see review), as has John Robinson (1979).

2. Kinhide Mushakoji (1988), from the perspective of some Eastern cultures, has stressed the importance of the 4-phase pattern to interparadigmatic dialogue by focusing on the tetra-lemma: affirmation, negation, non-affirmation and non-negation, affirmation and negation (see review). The second two are unacceptable to formal logic.

3. Carl Jung's work on psychological functions distinguished four types: Thinking (T), Intuition (I), Feeling (F) and Sensing (S) which may be organized into polarities -- notably as later developed as part of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Adding these two polarities, a third (Introversion (I) - Extroversion (E)) on which he commented extensively gives 8 line-structures characteristic of the 8-phase pattern. The third polarity may be added above the other two from the 4-phase pattern. Jungians argue (thanks to a comment by Johne Beebe) against a conflation of feeling with emotion, since they are differently symbolized in the unconscious: feeling is a function of consciousness, emotion an expression of the unconscious. As with any isolation into four, the four psychological functions are not perceived as existing by themselves, but only as modified by their "introverted" or "extraverted" deployment -- i.e. there is no feeling as such, only introverted feeling and extraverted feeling.  This means there are really eight functions rather than four.

4. Magoroh Maruyama (1974-1980) distinguishes four types of epistemological mindscape (see review: part 1 and part 2):

5. Antonio de Nicolas (1978) recognizes four complementary languages (see review: part 1 and part 2) as underlying the structure of the Rig Veda: In Habits of Mind (1989), he has applied these insights to the educational challenge of training inner mental skills, instead of transferring accumulations of facts, data and information. Referring to Plato, he sees education as uniquely concerned with the quality of the inner acts. "Distinctions and divisions leading to those acts are to be found in the quality itself of the acts performed, not in the external property of objects and their external relations. For it is in these internal acts, without intimation from the outside, that human freedom resides." (p. 46)

6. Ken Wilber, in his magnum opus on Sex, Ecology and Spirituality (1995), articulates a four-fold schema based on two dimensions or polarities (exterior - interior; individual-social). Combined these give four "quadrants": exterior-individual (behavioural), interior-individual (intentional), exterior-social (social system), and interior-social (cultural worldspace). Any attempt to relate these quadrants to the 4-phase pattern raises a fundamental issue about the framework suggested above. The user is actively involved in the choice of how to attribute meaning to the line codes and their position (as noted in the cited work of Sallantin). For example:

In both preferences, it is exterior and social that are unbroken whilst interior and individual are broken. Such preferences could easily be seen to reflect a particular set of biases -- fragmented individual subjectivity faced with seamless external society -- with other biases associated with upper and lower. An alternative bias would see the individual subjectivity as seamless (unbroken) faced with fragmented external society (broken). Whichever choices the user entertains, he/she will be challenged by the alternative implications. The point being that fixity in such matters is a trap. The representation evokes participation in a cognitive dance.

7. Since William Huff (1992) has made creative use of the 8 trigrams to distinguish 8 types of word pair (such as "peace" and "piece") according to meaningpronunciation and spelling, these have been included as examples in the 8-phase case. However, his system of associating meaning with the lowest line in the trigram has been reversed (to the highest), although his coding of same (unbroken line) and different (broken line) has been retained. He has extended his work to interlingual word pairs.

8. In connection with the 8-phase pattern, it is appropriate to recall patterns of response to value dilemmas, such as the Buddhist Eightfold Way, Erik Erikson's scheme of eight value crises, and their relationship to virtues and sins (see review)

9. There is a classic Buddhist text entitled the Brahmajala Sutta  (The Discourse on the All-Embracing Net of Views). This appears to be unique in endeavouring to map out as a system the complete set of fundamental viewpoints. It is the first sutta in the entire collection of the Buddha's discourses in the Pali Tripitaka. Its importance stems from its primary objective, namely the exposition of a scheme of 62 cases designed to include all possible views (past and future) on the central concern of speculative thought, the nature of the self in relation to the world (see review). Its patterning principles bear an intriguing relationship to the 4-phase, 8-phase and 16-phase structure of the above framework, themselves divided between 2 fundamental sections.

10. The above framework builds upon earlier explorations by the author relating to the challenges of comprehension. These include the role of number in the representation of sets of values, principles and insights (Judge, 1978) and the design of systematic number-based sets taking into account many different approaches to the organization of knowledge (1985) -- note comments on 2-phase, 4-phase, 8-phase and 16-phase. There is also an analysis (1986) of an extensive experiment relative to the special case of the 64-phase I Ching. The cross-cultural epistemological implications from the perspectives of a range of authors have also been reviewed (1993). The challenge of such perspectives for appropriate strategy articulation has been presented as an extensive series of comments (especially from point 10) within the framework of the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential. An 8-phase pattern of trigrams has been explored in responding to the challenges of United Nations reform (1986). The need to extend static insights into dynamic insight has been explored in more recent paper (1998).

11. With respect to the I Ching binary code, it is important to bear in mind the work of Martin Schonberger (1992) on its relation to the genetic coding system based on 4 codons -- on which so much effort is currently being expended in the Human Genome Project. The relationship has been further explored by Katya Walter (1996) and Steve Krakowski (1996). The latter's work indicates how people can choose to derive meaning from a projection process. Tony Smith's study, building on Walter's, is especially interesting in establishing a relationship to models of fundamental physics.

12. Although emphasis in commentary on the I Ching focuses on the 64-phase set of hexagrams, explanations of its origins show the necessary development in understanding from the 2-phase, through the 4-phase and 8 phase patterns.

13. With respect to the 16-phase pattern, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ® (based on the work of Jung on personality types) offers some interesting insights. This positions individuals with respect to preferences on four dimensions:

Results are generally reported with letters representing each of the preferences as indicated above.  This gives 16 possible ways to combine the binary preferences, resulting  in 16 personality types or response clusters (eg ISTJ, ISTP, ESTP, etc). Though many factors combine to influence an individual's behaviors, values, and attitudes, the four-letter type descriptions summarize underlying patterns and behaviors common to most people of that type (see summary of 16 types).

Dynamics

1. Perhaps the most fundamental insight of commentaries on the 64-phase I Ching pattern is that conditions change. As the Book of Changes, it is the relationship between the conditions which is as important as the conditions themselves. It is in this sense that the approach of Myers-Briggs, for example, is characteristic of a static rather than a dynamic perspective. It is indeed the case that people can be trapped in a particular condition. It is however vital to recognize how they can transform from one condition to another.

2. The line coding of the I Ching, and of the line-structures above, is used to represent the possibility of change. Thus an unbroken line can change into a broken line, and a broken line can change into an unbroken line. In doing so the line-structure is transformed to represent one of  the other conditions in the pattern. All the line-structures in a given pattern are connected by transformational pathways in this way. All the lines in a line-structure do not necessarily change at the same time. Traditionally the tendency of any one of them to change is indicative of a qualifying condition that lends itself to a particular interpretation. Examples of such qualification can be seen from an I Ching experiment.

3. The challenge is to explore (and comprehend) both the static conditions and their tendency to transform into other conditions in a given pattern. Clearly a condition may be static over an extended period -- constituting either a valuable stable platform (a "type"), or a trap. Transformations between conditions may take place very rapidly. Traditionally, for example, a breathing cycle can be understood as passing through a series of conditions. Practitioners of a breathing discipline may understand this in terms of a 2-phase pattern (inspiration / expiration) or more complex patterns. The same could be said of combustion engine or similar cycles. The dynamic pattern of conditions is then clearly vital to a larger process than is obvious from the perspective of any single condition. In this sense there may be personality "types" that are characterized more by a dynamic pattern of transformation between a number of conditions than by any single condition. Psychotherapists, for example, are concerned with pathological cycles of behaviour.

4. A key concern is how to design a viable transformation pattern or cycle. What conditions should form part of the pattern? How many of them are required for the cycle to be sustainable? Such challenges could be seen in terms of designing a dance -- how many steps are required? Or in composing a piece of music -- how many chords are needed to make an attractive melody? In each case an acceptable sequence needs to be determined, plus a sense of a viable whole.

5. In changing from one condition to another, the possibilities are to impose constraint on a free condition (eg broken to unbroken line) or to free up a constrained condition (eg unbroken to broken line). But the framework is less obvious than this implies. The constraint on a condition may be due to the context of a line (unbroken lines above and below a broken line). The constraint may be due to vacillation or subservience (broken line) in relation to commitment and direction (unbroken line).

Comprehension

1. Just as the framework is about the various combinations of static and dynamic, so it is also about the varieties of comprehension through objective knowledge in contrast to comprehension through subjective identification -- namely knowing about bicycle riding (in theory) and being able to ride a bicycle in practice. It is as much about "explanation of" as "being a part of" -- although the various combinations of these extremes are explored through the line-structures in the different patterns.

2. These variations may be explored by associating theoretical comprehension with an unbroken line and practical comprehension with a broken line (for example).

3. In the 4-phase pattern, emphasis on theory can lead the bicycle rider to fall off the bike. Emphasis on practice may simply result in entrapment in riding for riding's sake -- without direction. The successful rider shifts between all 4 phases -- allowing intellect and instinct to come into play and to play off against each other, each overriding the other in turn.

4. The 4-phase pattern may also illustrate the variety of meditative relationships between knower and known -- from objective knowing to subjective identification with -- without giving priority or preference to any one. It is the pattern that holds the larger truth. The 8-phase pattern of course a richer range of insights. Buddhists have extensive articulations of such patterns.

5. Because of the metaphors through which the traditional line-structures are usually explained and understood, each structure may be usefully compared to the stanza of a poem. Each pattern of structures then becomes a poem. Through the changes, meanings ripple through the stanzas and across the structures as associations -- building up a pattern of resonance that carries the significance of the poem as a whole.

6. Comprehending the dynamics of the 8-phase pattern can be explored in a very immediate manner by according attention to the way in which one engages in physical, emotional or intellectual activity over a period of minutes or hours. Various combinations of one or other may be active or passive, engaged or disengaged. It becomes clearer how and when there is a need to shift from one condition to another in the pattern. More challenging is to explore this in terms of the 16-phase pattern, perhaps associating principle (or values) with the additional fourth line (as the "highest" in the line structure).

7. Understanding how people shift around a pattern may also be clearly seen over a day or week of activity -- work, rest, play, etc. Perhaps most interesting, this pattern is manifest even in the case of those who would otherwise be stereotyped as locked into behaviours characteristic of a particular line-structure in a pattern. People need to shift around a pattern to renew and sustain themselves. This relates to time budget studies, as initiated in 1964 by Alexander Szalai (1972)

8. Another approach to comprehension of the dynamics of a pattern is to consider the arguments successively deployed by a skilled salesman sensitive to resistance and opportunities, shifting ground and changing mode. Of related interest is insight into confidence artistry -- including its possible relevance to governance (see review).

9. From the 4-phase pattern onwards, each pattern may be represented with the line-structures configured together in a circle -- instead of the tabular presentations above. Such circular presentations are a common feature of traditional I Ching commentary -- concentric variants are used in the geomantic compasses of the newly fashionable feng shui. One way to seek comprehension of such circles is to consider each of them as a form of wheel. In contrast to wheels of conventional vehicles for transportation over a 2-dimensional tangible surface, such a wheel may be considered as a device for the transportation of a viewpoint around a qualitative, multi-dimensional space -- a kind of "all-quality" vehicle (rather than an "all-terrain" vehicle). Travel in such a vehicle evokes and traverses qualitative experience. Aspects might, for example, be compared to the freshness of remembered experience as a child on an ideal day in the country -- hills and lakes, fire and water, thunder and lightning, wind and calm, with the sense of awe and adventure associated with the ups and downs of the surprising sequence in which these were encountered and how they interwove with, and were echoed by, the dynamics of relations with those with whom the day was shared.

Application to intractable polarities

Some challenging polarizations, characterized by communication gaps, include:
 

Policy-makers 
Planning
Public 
Consultation
Policy formulation 
Political promises
Policy effectiveness 
Detectable change
North (industrialized) 
Wealth
South (developing) 
Poverty
Western values Eastern values
Modern categories Indigenous categories
Knowledgeable Ignorant
Cultured Uncultured
Sciences Arts
Older generations 
Parents
Younger generations 
Children
Men Women
Right brain Left brain
Employed 
Over-paid
Unemployed 
Under-paid
Believers Unbelievers
Mainstream beliefs Alternative beliefs
 
[NB: Some comments on the above document are presented seaparately for convenience]

References

Rowan Bayne. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator : A Critical Review and Practical Guide 1995 [text]

Bhikku Bodhi (Tr). The Discourse on the All-Embracing Net of Views; the Brahmajala Sutta and its commentarial exegesis. Kandy, Buddhist Publications, 1978

Antonio de Nicolas. Meditations through the Rg Veda: four-dimensional man. Nicolas Hays, 1976

Antonio de Nicolas. Habits of Mind; an introduction to the philosophy of education. Paragon House, 1989

William S Huff. Homonym, Homonym and Homonym, and Other Word Pairs. Symmetry: Culture and Science, vol 3, 1. (Paper to the Second Symposium of the International Study of Symmetry, Hiroshima, 1992)

Anthony Judge. Alternation between variable geometries: a brokership style for the United Nations as a guarantee of its requisite variety. In Daniel Bardonnet (Ed). The Adaptation of Structures and Methods at the United Nations. Dordrecht, Martinus Nijhoff, 1986, pp. 243-247 (Workshop of the United Nations University and The Hague Academy of International Law, 1985).

Anthony Judge:

Magoroh Maruyama, Daiyo Sawada, Michael T. Caley (Eds.). Mindscapes: The Epistemology of Magoroh Maruyama . Gordon and Breach, 1994

[summary]

Magoroh Maruyama. Mindscapes in Management : Use of Individual Differences in Multicultural Management. 1994 [summary]

Magoroh Maruyama (Ed). Context and Complexity : Cultivating Contextual Understanding. 1992 [summary]

Kinhide Mushakoji. Global Issues and Interparadigmatic Dialogue; essays on multipolar politics. Torino, Albert Meynier, 1988

Isabel Briggs Myers. Introduction to Type : A Guide to Understanding Your Results on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 1993 [summary]

John A T Robinson. Truth is Two-Eyed. SCM Press, 1979

Xavier Sallantin. L'épistemologie de l'arithmetique. (Communication aux Seminaires internationaux d'épistemologie de l'Abbaye de Senanque, Sept. 1976). Laboratoire Bena de Logique Generale 1976. (A longer version of this paper appeared as Pt. 3 of L'Epreuve de la Force. Cahiers de la Fondation pour les Etudes de Defense Nationale. No. 2, Octobre 1975)

Martin Schonberger. I Ching and the Genetic Code. Aurora Press, 1992 [summary]

Tony Smith. I Ching (Ho Tu and Lo Shu), Genetic Code, Tai Hsuan Ching, and the D4-D5-E6 Model [text]

Alexander Szalai et al. The use of time. Mouton. 1972

Katya McCall Walter. Tao of Chaos : Merging East and West. 1996 [summary]

Ken Wilber. Sex, Ecology, Spirituality : The Spirit of Evolution. 1995 [summary]

Richard Wilhelm (Tr). The I Ching or Book of Changes. Princeton University Press, 1950

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