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6 July 2020 | Draft

Reframing the Righteousness Enabling Repetition of the Titanic Disaster

Comprehension of 144 Distinctions -- Mahjong as "Angels" versus "Demons"

- / -

Challenge of mapping 144 distinct forces in 3D
Mutual entanglement of two patterns of 72-foldness?
Reframing binary governance as minimally a fourfold challenge?
Reframing the mapping challenge of 144 distinctions in terms of 288
Systemic recognition of the "cognitive underworld" -- integrating the "netherworld"
Game ball design as holding insight of relevance to global governance?
Non-linear pathways curving  between octants
Global psychosocial "thermohaline circulation"?
Mapping options for 144 distinctive features of a dynamic global system
Governance via paradoxical transformation of global mapping dynamics
Enabling flying capacity with "headgear" -- cognitively comprehended?


There is a case for exploring the distinctions made with respect to a 144-fold pattern. This follows from the more general argument with respect to Identifying Polyhedra Enabling Memorable Strategic Mapping: visualization of organization and strategic coherence through 3D modelling (2020). There the focus was on a wide variety of patterns in which the symbolic significance of 64-foldness, 72-foldness, 81-foldness, 108-foldness, and 144-foldness was only highlighted in passing as examples of traditional systems of belief, most notably religions. By contrast a focus was given there to the challenging Memorability of 17 Sustainable Development Goals with 169 tasks -- with the latter starkly defined as an unwieldy mess (The 169 commandments: the proposed sustainable development goals would be worse than useless, The Economist, 26 March 2015)

It was noted in the earlier argument that the Eastern board game of Mahjong, with its 144 tiles, was relatively unique in distinguishing visually clusters of tiles within such a set -- representative of opposing parties in the game. As with those other patterns of N-foldness, the question raised was whether the pattern as a whole, and its dynamics, could be comprehended more memorably in 3D. It so happens that a range of experiments in this respect is evident in the case of Mahjong -- mainly as stacks of tiles, as is illustrated in many images accessible over the web. More complex strategic experiments have been undertaken with chess in 3D.

By contrast, various Western traditions have accorded significance to sets of 72 angels and 72 demons, as discussed separately (Engaging with Hyperreality through Demonique and Angelique? Mnemonic clues to global governance from mathematical theology and hyperbolic tessellation, 2016). In together totalling 144, these two sets effectively constitute a form of game, long imagined to be of far more archetypal significance than Mahjong, despite the strategic thinking the latter requires. However, in a period in which the dynamics of global civilization is variously held imaginatively to be a battle between the forces of good and evil -- if not the final battle -- there is a case for exploring the articulation of what have been traditionally identified as the representatives of both.

Little is explicitly said of the forces of "good", other than by implication. However that implication notably takes the form of an unquestionable degree of righteousness -- currently challenged by a wide pattern of popular unrest. Curiously this arrogant righteousness is epitomized in the forms of denial which contributed to the tragic sinking of RMS Titanic just over a century ago. It is appropriate to ask whether institutions and value systems currently held to be characteristic of global civilization are imbued with similar righteousness -- similarly held to be beyond question, despite indications to the contrary (Vigorous Application of Derivative Thinking to Derivative Problems, 2013).

Is there a fundamental inability to ask relevant questions -- thereby rendering global civilization vulnerable to a "Titanic moment"? This is suggested by the adage of George Santayana: Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. (Graham Readfearn, Scientist's theory of climate's Titanic moment: the 'tip of a mathematical iceberg', The Guardian, 2 Dec 2019).

By contrast, much is definitively asserted regarding "others" -- as representing the forces of evil (Encyclopedia of Evil Claims, Claimants, Counter-claims, and Sigils: proposed facility in support of current global strategic priorities, 2016). The latter included discussions of Existence of evil as authoritatively claimed to be an overriding strategic concern and Framing by others of claimants of evil as evil. Noteworthy is the formal declaration as to the existence of "evil" by President Obama in his acceptance speech of the Nobel Peace Prize (2009). As with earlier recognition of an Axis of Evil by George Bush, the assertion has been characteristic of other recent presidents of the USA -- themselves typically framed as evil by others.

Although highly questionable for many, the reference here to the "demons" and "angels", as actively imagined in many cultures and religions, usefully corresponds to the current secular framing of the many "problems" and "strategies" -- as profiled, for example, in the online Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential. However either forms are engendered to populate the ethereal realms of the collective imagination, contemporary science has as yet been unable to agree on how to order them fruitfully. It is therefore ironic to note that experts of the distant past distinguished 72 constellations of 1600 stars (O. Neugebauer, A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy, 2012, p. 286).

If "evil" is to be taken as seriously as the leaders of the free world would have it, the question in what follows is how any pattern of 144 could be visualized in new ways -- potentially in anticipation of any "final battle" to be envisaged.. How might this enable unforeseen insights into the relationships between opposing parties -- whether or not either frames the other as "good" or "evil", or considers that it in so doing it exemplifies the former rather than the latter? Strangely it is religions and similar belief systems which continue to honour patterns of such complexity, if only in strategic board games -- including chess and go, now extended to some forms of online gaming.

It is unfortunate that global strategy-making at this time struggles with patterns of much lower articulation, as exemplified by the 17 Sustainable Development Goals of the UN. Strangely, as noted above, these have however been supplemented with 169 recognized "tasks". Although without explanation, curiously this is 13x13, in contrast to the 144 as 12x12. There is indeed a challenge of visually representing such contrasting patterns variously upheld to be of fundamental global significance, as discussed separately (Strategic viability of global governance enabled by mappings on exotic polyhedra, 2020).

There is therefore a case for employing popular familiarity with such patterns across cultures to reframe the dangerously unquestioned tendencies to righteousness and overconfidence. The current approach to the COVID-19 pandemic could be understood to have exemplified such strategic oversimplification (COVID-19 as a Memetic Disease: Learning from pandemics of the past, 2020). Are there more appropriate ways to imagine and comprehend the complex dynamics of whatever is understood to be "good" or "evil"?

The emphasis here is on challenges to the imagination, and the possibilities of enabling other modes of reflection, most notably through the use of visualization technology and mnemonic aids -- whose availability and appreciation is now so evident to the young.

Challenge of mapping 144 distinct forces in 3D

Face-mapping: A more satisfactory approach to such a mapping exercise would be one which positions the 144, duly labelled, on the faces of a polyhedron. The previous exercise noted one such candidate only. This is the 3D projection of a 4D polyhedron (a polychoron). This is illustrated by a 4D rotation below left -- presented for information only since it is difficult to see how it could be used for mapping, whatever strategic significance it may imply (Comprehending the shapes of time through four-dimensional uniform polychora, 2015). A second is the dual of the Hendecagonal-faced polyhedron (presented below right).

65-Chuhoh Hendecagonal-faced polyhedron
144 faces (3 types), 96 edges (1 type), 24 vertices (1 type) 144 faces (6 types), 228 edges (10 types), 86 vertexes (5 types) (dual)
65-Chuhoh Hendecagonal-faced polyhedron Hendecagonal-faced polyhedron
Generated using Stella Polyhedron Navigator

Edge-mapping: In this case the 144 distinctions would be associated with the edges of a polyhedron. Nine possibilities are indicated: one of the options is somewhat similar to that illustrated above left and is therefore not presented below; 4 were similar (of the Bruckner type), one of which is presented below. Using edges is somewhat unsatisfactory because of a degree of difficulty (especially in terms of legibility) of attaching text descriptors to each. Edges have the advantage in being able to imply a form of dynamic, communication, or direction of movement, as with feedback loops.

Two-holed drilled truncated cuboctahedron (dual below) Augmented cubitruncated cuboctahedron (dual below) Compound of 4 Truncated cubes
(dual below)
62 faces (11 types), 144 edges (18 types), 72 vertexes (9 types) 68 faces (5 types), 144 edges (6 types), 72 vertexes (3 types) 56 faces (3 types), 144 edges (7 types), 96 vertexes (4 types)
Two-holed drilled truncated cuboctahedron Augmented cubitruncated cuboctahedron Compound of 4 Truncated cubes
Two-holed drilled truncated cuboctahedron -- dual Augmented cubitruncated cuboctahedron -- dual Compound of 4 Truncated cubes  -- dual
Faceted truncated cuboctahedron 2 (dual below) 2-frequency cubic geodesic sphere
(dual below)
Bruckner (8,10)
(dual below)
72 faces (5 types), 144 edges (7 types), 48 vertexes (2 types) 96 faces (4 types), 144 edges (5 types), 50 vertexes (4 types) 48 faces (2 types), 144 edges (12 types), 48 vertexes (2 types)
Faceted truncated cuboctahedron 2 2-frequency cubic geodesic sphere Bruckner (8,10)
Faceted truncated cuboctahedron 2  -- dual 2-frequency cubic geodesic sphere  -- dual Bruckner (8,10)  -- dual
Generated using Stella Polyhedron Navigator

Vertex-mapping: Again the number of candidates is very limited. 4D rotation of one is presented below left for information only, since it is difficult to see how it might be used for mapping, despite being potentially suggestive of dynamics. Far more interesting as candidates are the 8-fold truncated octahedron (below centre) and the expansion of the truncated cuboctahedron (below right). Again however there is the question of how descriptor labels would be legibly attached to the 144 vertexes in any mapping -- especially when these take the form of images. Their configuration has the great advantage of being comprehensible and memorable.

More intriguing is the potential of their duals (lower row, centre and right), given the possibility of mapping descriptor labels onto their 144 faces. Both of these pose a different problem in that the "faces" in question actually traverse the body of the polyhedron -- making it especially difficult to associate labels with them.

F-Dupapdi Truncated octahedron 8 Prism-expanded truncated cuboctahedron
144 cells (3 types), 696 faces (4 types), 864 edges (2 types). 144 vertexes (1 type) 88 faces (5 types), 240 edges (11 types), 144 vertexes (6 types) 148 faces (9 types), 312 edges (13 types), 144 vertexes (6 types)
F-Dupapdi Truncated octahedron 8 Prism-expanded truncated cuboctahedron
Truncated octahedron 8 -- dual Prism-expanded truncated cuboctahedron -- dual
Generated using Stella Polyhedron Navigator

The 8-fold truncated polyhedron merits further attention in the light of the aesthetic coherence of a 144-fold pattern. This can be better understood by rendering the faces transparent whether for that polyhedron (below centre), or its duals (animations left and right below). They help to focus the question of what coherence might be recognizable in such a pattern of 144 distinctions. What is 144-foldness all about, given its widespread popular appeal, if only by implication? Or, far more provocatively, how do qualitatively distinct angelic and demonic representatives interact ("in heaven", hypothetically).

Truncated octahedron 8
Dual rotating: 3-fold perspective Rotation of wireframe variant Dual rotating: 4-fold perspective
Truncated octahedron 8 Truncated octahedron 8 Truncated octahedron 8
Generated using Stella Polyhedron Navigator

Mutual entanglement of two patterns of 72-foldness?

As noted above, a previous exercise explored a mapping of 72-foldness -- provoked by an estimate of the number of protein spikes on the virus COVID-19 (Spike-endowed Global Civilization as COVID-19, 2020). Benefitting from traditional iconography of 72 angels and 72 demons, this gave rise to the following two mappings of 72-foldness, attaching spike-style labels to each vertex. It is curious to note that this pattern of 72-foldness was of significance to the early Egyptian and Roman civilizations as an organization of the constellations of stars.

Indication in 3D of the dynamic nature of a "hyperdimensional" crown-corona
3D Configuration of "positive forces " as 72 "Angel names" 3D Configuration of "negative forces " as 72 "Demonic sigils"
3D Configuration of   positive forces as 72 Angel names 3D Configuration of  negative forces as 72 Demonic sigils

With the focus in this argument on a pattern of 144-foldnes, these frame the question as to how the two different mappings might be interrelated together. How can they be entangled in "battle formation" -- mapped in a pattern of 144 -- given the constraints indicated in the previous section. This would clearly be indicative of the dynamics of their relationship.

With each angel and each demon as a mnemonic emblem of a specific force qualified in some way as "positive" or "negative", the question then relates to the challenge of any control system -- as understood by cybernetics for any complex system. Are there 72 positive feedback loops, and 72 negative feedback loops to be recognized in a more mature system of global governance?

Some indication is indicated by theoretical studies of the variety of possible system failures, as discussed separately (Variety of System Failures Engendered by Negligent Distinctions Mnemonic: clues to 72 modes of viable system failure from a demonic pattern language, 2016). Might demonic names or sigils offer mnemonic reminders to the potential of such failure? Might positive feedback forces be similarly rendered memorable by angelic names and iconography -- if only for some?

Reframing binary governance as minimally a fourfold challenge?

There is little difficulty in recognizing the valuable simplicity of "good guys" versus "bad guys". Other than its reinforcement by religion, this distinction is made in many domains, most obviously politics and the military. It is however characteristic of competitive relationships in business and sport -- and in academia to a degree, as exemplified by the challenges of one discipline to another.

As is however also very clear in the extreme case of condemnation of others as "evil", those making that claim are as likely to be framed as "evil" in turn -- despite appreciating themselves as an exemplification of the "good". Although less charged with metaphysical implications, the same is true of competitive relationships -- each side deprecating the other whilst appreciating itself. Each academic discipline cultivates a degree of self-appreciation -- by contrast with its deprecation of those with alternative methodologies.

The challenge is clearly between the assumed ability to make absolute and unquestionable judgements and the recognition that others may evaluate matters otherwise -- whether or not they are held to be ill-informed. The pattern is only too evident in the dynamics within the USA at this time, whether between Democrats and Republicans, between Afro-Americans and Euro-Americans, or between females and males (with further complexities implied by the oversimplicity of the latter distinction). The pattern is evident in the relations between counties, notably America and the challengers to its status as leading superpower.

The obvious pattern is represented by the first line of the table below.

"We're good" (angels)
"We're the greatest"

Binary commentators
(sports, business, politics), whether biased or questioning both extremes
Condemnation of otherness
"They're bad" (demons)
"They're losers"
Questioning the unquestionable
"We need to hear them" (to listen)
"Them demons is slightly angelic"
Neutral "appreciation" of the dynamic Questioning the unquestionable
"Them angels is slightly demonic"
We angels are also sinners Cynical questioning of both extremes We demons are also a force for good

*** magic square / berwin -- moves -- levels of feedback -- coaction cardioid

The second line is indicative of the qualification on the first -- however grudging and covert. It is obvious in the appreciation that may be accorded to any opposition (in private), however it may be overtly framed as demonic. This is most simply obvious in competitive sport and between business competitors. In framing themselves as representative of the forces of light, for example, US Democrats would have difficulty in recognizing US Republicans as other than representing the forces of darkness. That appreciation is of course reciprocated. The qualified appreciation cannot be publicly articulated for fear of undermining competitive advantage -- or when playing lipservice to "democracy" (perhaps exemplified by the "neutral" position in the table.

Most communication in the media relates to the dynamics of the first line; little to the second or third lines. It is those dynamics in the first line which are so overwhelmingly characterized by fake news in all its forms (**)

From a systemic perspective, there is however a need for a healthy "check" on what is deemed to be "good". More of a good thing is not necessarily better -- whatever the short-term assessment. Similarly it may be appropriate to appreciate that an uncomfortable constraint may indeed be "good" -- as in so-called "tough love" from a longer-term [perspective. However, whilst there is a degree of recognition of this qualification of "we angelic" versus "them demonic", the 4-fold pattern is seldom explicitly incorporated in institutional arrangements, let alone any 6-fold pattern.

The point can be emphasized through the total lack of interest in exploring 4-fold games, as distinct from tennis "doubles" or bridge partners (Destabilizing Multipolar Society through Binary Decision-making: alternatives to "2-stroke democracy" suggested by 4-sided ball games, 2016).

Reframing the mapping challenge of 144 distinctions in terms of 288

The mapping of 144 is clearly "frustrated", as indicated above, by the manner in which -- at best -- the faces of potential polyhedra pass through the body of the form rather than being "superficial", as would otherwise be desirable for mapping onto well-bounded surfaces. This recalls the challenge of designing appropriate projections enabling the 3D Earth globe to be mapped comprehensibly in 2D (List of Map Projections, Wikipedia).

However the previous section suggests that the real challenge may be one of mapping not 2x72 but 4x72, namely 288. This would then hold the manner in which the appreciation of both angelic and demonic is nuanced in practice -- despite principled assertions to the contrary from particular perspectives, thereby to be understood as part of the dynamic rather than external to it.

Another approach is therefore through polyhedra with 288 faces, onto which there is then a challenge of mapping 144. One relatively unique candidate is the 6-frequency octahedral geodesic sphere. Of value to the mapping exercise, it is cleanly split into two hemispheres, each offering 144 faces. These in turn are clearly split into 4 segments offering 36 faces each. There are then 8 such segments -- octants -- in the sphere as a whole.

A hemisphere therefore offers the possibility of holding both the set of 72 angels and the set of 72 demons. Curiously the distinctive sets of the 144 tiles of Mahjong offers indications as to how their distinctions might be attributed. The 12 types of faces of the sphere as a whole are distinguished geometrically in terms of 12 distinctive triangular formations, with 24 faces of each type -- together totalling 288, namely 36 per octant (of which 4 per hemisphere).

One indication of the geometry of the pattern is indicated by the following, with face types distinctively coloured using the facility of Stella Polyhedron Navigator.

6-Frequency Octahedral Geodesic Sphere
Perspective on single octant
"upper" hemisphere
Rotation with perspective on
"upper/lower" hemisphere octants
Perspective on neighbouring octants
"upper/lower" hemispheres
Generated using Stella Polyhedron Navigator

The images left and right above of one octant have the number of the face type indicated (from 1 to 12) on each face. In each case this number is followed by the number of the face from 1 to 36, in that "first" octant. The latter numbering extends to 144 in the "upper hemisphere", and continues from 145 to 288 in the "lower hemisphere". The number of faces of a given type is indicated below. Those of Column C are a reflection of those of Column D.

  • Face type 1 > 3
  • Face type 2 > 3
  • Face type 3 > 3
  • Face type 4 > 3
  • Face type 11 > 3
  • Face type 12 > 3
  • Face type 5 > 3
  • Face type 6 > 3
  • Face type 9 > 3
  • Face type 8 > 3
  • Face type 7 > 3
  • Face type 10 > 3

The set of 144 Mahjong tiles is traditionally distinguished as follows (with variations, notably between Chinese and Japanese versions). Possible attribution per octant in any mapping are indicated in parenthesis in each case:

Suits (simples):
  • circles / dots 36 (9 per octant)
  • bamboos 36 (9 per octant)
  • characters 36 (9 per octant)
  • winds 16 (4 per octant)
  • dragons 12 (3 per octant)
Quartets (bonus)
  • flowers 4 (1 per octant)
  • seasons 4 (1 per octant)

The question is how the images of the 144 tiles might be associated with the geometrical face types in an octant. First consideration of this suggests that it is the very fact that Mahjong is a game that indicates that any such mapping cannot (or should not) be undertaken to achieve a closure which may be premature. The attributions to any octant are challenged by the attributions to other octants. No particular set of attributions is stable. Assumptions of definitive closure are problematic (Engaging with Elusive Connectivity and Coherence: global comprehension as a mistaken quest for closure, 2018).

Any octant mapping is dynamic -- perhaps usefully to be understood as an infinite game, as distinguished from a finite game by James Carse (Finite and Infinite Games: a vision of life as play and possibility, 1986).

Animation highlighting alternative face type patterns
(perspective and numbering is for the first octant)
Generated using Stella Polyhedron Navigator

This consideration would be especially relevant to the attribution of 72 angels and 72 demons to the "upper hemisphere" -- with the only too obvious possibility of confining 36 of each to an octant. However the nature of the continuing dynamic between them calls for another understanding of any such mapping. Some sense of this is offered by the mapping of wind systems, tidal movement and temperature changes around the globe -- in response to "positive" and "negative" forces, as suggested by maps of the global ocean thermohaline circulation (discussed further below)

Systemic recognition of the "cognitive underworld" -- integrating the "netherworld"

The argument in the light of the global mapping of 2x144 can be taken further (as discussed below). This could depend on a comprehensible way of distinguishing the significance of the octants of 36 elements into which that pattern is divided (as suggested above).

That approach can be usefully visualized as follows. The presentation is reproduced from separate discussions (Designing Global Self-governance for the Future: patterns of dynamic integration of the netherworld, 2010; Incorporating under-currents into global circulation of value, 2010). The focus is on articulating to a higher degree the relation between the inherently divisive binary condition of "positive" versus "negative". coaction ****

Octant organization and conventions
Octants in solid geometry Octant sign convention Octants with signs
Octants in solid geometry
  x y z
I + + +
II - + +
III - - +
IV + - +
V + + -
VI - + -
VII - - -
VIII + - -
Octants with signs
Reproduced from Wikipedia Reproduced from Wikipedia Reproduced from Wolfram MathWorld

The 8-fold pattern can be usefully encoded by the 8-fold pattern of the Chinese BaGua system as indicated below right.

Attribution of trigram codes and signs to octants
Adaptation of table above Attribution of trigram codes Octant sign convention
  real "third" imaginary
I pos "pos" pos
II neg "pos" pos
III neg "pos" neg
IV pos "pos" neg
V pos "neg" pos
VI neg "neg" pos
VII neg "neg" neg
VIII pos "neg" neg
  x z y
I + + +
II - + +
III - + -
IV + + -
V + - +
VI - - +
VII - - -
VIII + - -
Octant configuration with signs and trigram encoding

Of further interest then is the relation between the 8-fold Chinese pattern and the simplest magic square, as indicated below left and questionably to the Chinese "nine halls pattern". Although not of immediate relave to the following argument, in Chinese philosophy, that 8-fold pattern is interpreted in terms of the 5-fold pattern of the Wu Xing, as indicated below right, and discussed separately in relation to a corresponding Pythagorean concept (Cycles of enstoning forming mnemonic pentagrams: Hygiea and Wu Xing, 2012).

Traditional magic square configuration of BaGua
a cognitive gearbox?
Wu Xing
Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes
Traditional magic square configuration of BaGua Wu Xing
Adaptation of depiction by Shu Shengyu (2015) Reproduced from Wikipedia

Of particular relevance to this argument are the two "arrangements" of the 8-fold BaGua pattern, termed "Earlier Heaven" and "Later Heaven". These are typically displayed separately and their relationship is not readily comprehensible, although each has its own coherence. Understood as alternating between two conditions of coherence, the two can be presented in an animation (below left). 

The classical magic square can  be presented in a variety of forms simply by rotation. In mathematical terms the difference between them are trivial but can be illustrated by the animation on the right -- in which rows, columns and diagonals always sum to the magic constant of 15.

There is a case for recognizing that each of the two BaGua patterns is "unstable" and has an inherent tendency to "flip" into the other pattern. This alternation can be understood as a form of "pumping" action -- even a form of "perpetual motion" in cognitive terms. It could also be recognized as constituting a form of 8-fold resonance hybrid, as is characteristic of the 6-fold benzene molecule fundamental to the organic molecules basic to life.

Purely as a mnemonic device, the alternation can be understood as driving -- "pumping" -- the rotation of the magic square (as shown in the central animation). That also provides a framework for suggesting alternating patterns of feedback loops between the 8-condtions. The point of such an animation being to offer a way of thinking about the relation between the octant domains above.

Animations relating the BaGua arrangements with magic square arrangements

There is then a sense that there is movement of a kind from any (octant) domain which is relatively "full" to one which is relatively "empty". This is most readily understood in terms of pressure -- with a flow from high pressure to one of low pressure. It is also evident in the case of temperature -- with heat in one domain effectively being lost, by flowing to another which is relatively cooler.

The argument here is that there is a cognitive equivalent to this -- which might be expressed in terms of enthusiasm, interest or excitement. There is a movement of attention from a domain experienced as relatively "boring" and constrained to one which is more "attractive" and open -- or vice versa.

With respect to the set of octants, these dynamics might then be represented as in the animations below -- echoing those of the arrows in the magic square depiction above. 

Animations indicative of transformative movements between octants

The disadvantage of these animations is that -- when combined -- the dynamics represented are complex in an overly mechanical sense. In proactive, the flow of attention and engagement is experienced otherwise -- more coherently and "smoothly", if not more elegantly. This may be better experienced in terms of a wave motion. There is then a need for an animation which is more suggestive of that intimate experience and of its subtly mysterious nature. Again the emphasis is on how non-binary dynamics are to be comprehended more coherently -- to avoid the obvious limitations of the binary constraint.

Game ball design as holding insight of relevance to global governance?

There is considerable irony to the fact that the design of balls used in the most common sports holds insights which are of potential relevance to global governance (Unrecognized reminder of globality from the focus of ball games, 2018; Polyhedral mapping reconciling value-goals and their antitheses in the light of ball-games, 2017). The seam pattern (whether stitching or otherwise), required for the manufacture of a ball, embodies the most efficient way of producing a spherical form that can be subject to the stresses it experiences in practice. This seam pattern could then be said to be suggestive of one way of thinking about the design for a form of governance that is able to "hold the globe together".

In that case however, the "seam" (or "stitching"), rather than being static, is a form of dynamic of which the curve is indicative as a kind pathway tracing its way around the globe. Borders, instead of being static, are in a sense recognized as pathways. As the animations above suggest, the pathway must necessarily pass through each octant of the globe for the global system to be viable and healthy.

There is even greater irony to the manner in which, as active symbols, the balls are fundamental to games in which they are kicked or hit competitively between opposing parties. It is from that process that the balls derive their significance. in games through which there is engagement with the ball, each endeavours to control the movement of the ball, possibly through gaining possession of it -- and with the objective of placing the other at a disadvantage through scoring points or goals. (Destabilizing Multipolar Society through Binary Decision-making: alternatives to "2-stroke democracy" suggested by 4-sided ball games, 2016).

Geometry of balls focusing global attention in sports: As noted in a useful review by Paul Bourke (Geometry of Sports Balls, January 2017):

It should be noted that in many cases there is not one design for the balls, there is variation over the years as manufacturing has evolved but also variations due to different manufactures, in some case variations arising due to patents. Tennis ball (Softball, Baseball, Basketball, Tee ball, Hurling) The shape of the seam on a tennis ball, like some other ball seams, arises from the initial goal of producing one 2D shape that can be cut out of a sheet of material and then stitched together in pairs. This is an example of dform surfaces.

Football: It is well-recognized that the pattern on a standard association football is that of a truncated icosahedron. As such it has the peculiar property of combining spherical pentagons and hexagons. The implications with respect to Incommensurable cognitive patterns and their symbolism are explored separately (Middle East Peace Potential through Dynamics in Spherical Geometry: engendering connectivity from incommensurable 5-fold and 6-fold conceptual frameworks, 2012)

Football illustration of questionable attribution of "positive" and "negative"
Of relevance to Middle East perceptions given that the standard football is manufactured with a variety of panel colourings and markings
5-fold as "negative" / 6-fold as "positive" 6-fold as "negative" / 5-fold as "positive"
Football illustration of questionable attribution of positive and negative Football illustration of questionable attribution of  positive  and  negative

Basketball: As discussed below, the stitching on the common baseball follows a pattern which is shared with the tennis ball (Geoff Hagopian, Designing a Baseball Cover; Dean Allison, et al,  Generalized Baseball Curves: Three Symmetries and You're In! MAA, September 2008)

Golf ball: ***

Tennis ball: The pattern of the seam line of a tennis ball (common to that of the basketball) is elegantly complex, although readily comprehended. It has been the focus of mathematics, and gave rise to the Tennis ball theorem of Vladimir Arnold by which it is described as a curve englobing a sphere and subdividing it.

In endeavouring to produce an animation of relevance to this argument, it was however curious to note that questions continue to be raised as to the most appropriate curve in mathematical terms, as separately summarized and illustrated (Robert Ferréol and Alain Esculier, Seam Line of a Tennis Ball, Math Curve, 2018). It is also the focus of generalizations, potentially applicable to spheres of higher dimensionality (Mohammed Ghomi, Torsion of Locally Convex Curves,, 2 September 2018). In that light, the following animation is based on one approximation to such a curve.

Alternative versions of parameterization of the tennis-ball curve
x(t) = a sin(t) + b sin(3t)
y(t) = a cos(t) − b cos(3t)
z(t) = √(4ab)

x(t) = a sin(t) + b sin(3t)
y(t) = a cos(t) − b cos(3t)
z(t) = 2 (√(ab)) sin(2t)

x = sin(pi/2 - (pi/2 - A) cos(T)) cos(T/2 + A sin(2T))
y = sin(pi/2 - (pi/2 - A) cos(T)) sin(T/2 + A sin(2T))
z = cos(pi/2 - (pi/2 - A) cos(T))
a + b is the radius of the ball a + b is the radius of the ball T ranges from 0 to 2pi with parameter A as 0.44.

The simplicity and complexity of the "tennis ball curve" can be understood through the following screen shots -- with and without the ball around which it is curves. Despite its relative complexity, or because of it, its elusive elegance can be readily appreciated.

Screen shots of 3D model of tennis-ball/baseball curve
One perspective Another perspective
without ball with ball without ball with ball
Tennis_ball curve Tennis_ball curve Tennis_ball curve Tennis_ball curve
Interactive variant in 3D (x3d)

Non-linear pathways curving  between octants

The basic requirement is for the "tennis ball curve" to pass through each octant as shown in the screen shots below -- the octants then to be understood as distinctive conditions vital to the dynamic integrity of the whole.

Tennis-ball/Baseball curve indicative of transfpormatoive movement between octants
Tennis_ball curve between octants Tennis_ball curve between octants Tennis_ball curve between octants Tennis_ball curve between octants

Rotation of the curve: Additional insights can be derived from the basic model by complexifying it in various ways. The simplest is to duplicate the blue curve through rotating it as shown below -- to form the red curve.

Screen shots of 3D model with curve and its rotation
One coherent view Another coherent view Twisted view With octants
Double tennis_ball curve Double tennis_ball curve Double tennis_ball curve Double tennis_ball curve between octants
Interactive variant in 3D (x3d) Interactive variant in 3D (x3d)

To emphasize the distinction between the octants, the conventional BaGua trigram coding can be added, as indicated in the screen shot on the left below. Rather than the single rotation of the basic curve shown above, further rotations can be made, giving rise to 6 curves, as variously shown in the other screen shots below. Rather than using two colours, each of the 6 curves could of course be distinctively coloured.

Complexification of 3D model
Trigram encoding 6 curves 6 curves 6 curves with octants
Double tennis_ball curve between octants with trigram encoding Configuration of six tennis_ball curves Configuration of six tennis_ball curves Configuration of six tennis_ball curves between octants
Interactive variant in 3D (x3d) Interactive variant in 3D (x3d)

It is appropriate to emphasize the shift to the complementary perspective of a set of pathways rather than a set of 8 domains. It could be said that each perspective defines the other and that recognition of both might be usefully understood in terms of an uncertainty principle.

Knight's move thinking: A related perspective is offered by highlighting the vertices of the octant pattern. Further insight is suggested by the sense in which it is the vertex with which a number is associated, rather than the octant as a domain -- as suggested above by reference to a magic square. This then frames a set of what could be understood as Knight's moves, notably as understood mathematically in terms of a Knight's tour and poetic mnemonics (Implicate order of Knight's move game-playing: sustaining creativity, exploitation and impunity, 2012). The latter framed a discussion of:

The metaphors used to frame the pattern can be interrelated to a higher degree by highlighting the interplay between Knight's move thinking, the BaGua pattern, and the Wu Xing cycle (as indicated above). With respect to the global implication, initially introduced, of particular interest is how any such globe can be "navigated" in the light of spherical geometry. Historically this has been a focus of a major innovation in enabling navigation through insight into what is termed the Pentagramma Mirificum, as discussed separately (Global Psychosocial Implication in the Pentagramma Mirificum: clues from spherical geometry to "getting around" and circumnavigating imaginatively, 2015).

Experimental animations indicative of a cyclic pattern of metaphors
(each use of metaphor within an animation is associated with an orthogonal direction)
8 of the Knight's moves across
neighbouring cells of a chess board
Knight's moves superimposed on
one BaGua mirror arrangement
Wu Xing cycle (one direction) superimposed
on one BaGua mirror arrangement
Pentagramma Mirificum
(reproduced from Wikipedia)
Animation of 8 of the Knight's moves in chess Animation of succession of Knight's moves across the BaGua Bagua Wu Xing cycle Pentagramma Mirificum
Reproduced from Global Psychosocial Implication in the Pentagramma Mirificum (2015) Mciura / CC BY-SA

Magic cube: However, rather than the third move of the Knight being in a single plane, here it involves moving diagonally two another plane, as shown below left. This is consistent with the pathway of the single blue curve -- passing through two domains in the "upper" hemisphere (say) before switching to the "lower". Whether appreciated or deprecated (as a Knight's move), it can be usefully understood as a "cognitive twist" (paper **)

Here the switch offers the sense of moving into (or through) an "underworld" or "netherworld" -- or emerging from one. Shifting "planes" in this way is consistent with the many approaches to three-dimensional chess, allowing the chess pieces to move in three physical dimensions (although higher dimensional variants have been designed). As noted by Wikipedia, "three-dimensional chess" is used colloquially to describe complex, dynamic systems with many competing entities and interests, including politics, diplomacy and warfare. The nature of a Knight's move in such a context is usefully clarified in terms of so-called "fairy chess pieces" (A. P. Goucher, Three-dimensional Chess, Complex Projective 4-Space, 30 March 2013).

To describe an individual as "playing three-dimensional chess" implies a higher-order understanding and mastery of the system -- beyond the comprehension of their peers or ordinary observers, as recently highlighted:

Knight's move in 3D between octants -- compared to magic cube
"Knight's move"
between octants in 3D
Magic cube
(magic constant 42)
Pandiagonal magic square with bent diagonals
(in red; clarified with ghost variant on right)
Knight's move between octants in 3D Magic cube Pandiagonal magic square Pandiagonal magic square
  Reproduced from Wikimedia Jaksmata / Public domain Adapted from Wikimedia

If each vertex is numbered, the pattern may then take the form of a magic cube as in in the 3x3x3 example above.The following distinctions are then helpful in that this offers a way of thinking about degrees of coherence:

However, as above, the argument here is that it is the cognitive pathways implied by these operations which are especially relevant -- rather than any focus on the quantitative relationship between the numbers, as is the focus in recreational mathematics. As with the "Knight's move", the emphasis is on the "moves" -- as in the jargon appreciation of how a person "moves", or the style of play in games.

Global psychosocial "thermohaline circulation"?

Whereas global maps conventionally show static features, any dynamic in a sustainable "game" is quite otherwise -- whether in the case of Mahjong or between forces representative of competing value systems. Whilst this is more obvious in the case of "movements of opinion", if it were possible to map their "movement" (other than as statistical trends), it can usefully be considered to be the case with "angelic forces", understood metaphorically or otherwise.

A physical variant of the schematic tennis-ball curve dynamic (as presented above) can be recognized to some degree in the circulating movement of ocean currents around the globe.

Global air and water currents: A number of self-sustaining currents are fundamental to the viability of the global environment. In the case of the oceans, their dynamic may be best understood by the Great Ocean Conveyor (depicted below), of which the potentially endangered Gulf Stream is but a part. The phases in the dynamic are well illustrated by the interplay of heat, salinity and density -- reminiscent of their metaphoric significance in other contexts.

As suggested for an initial (simplistic) interweaving of such currents, whether "surface-current" or "under-current", the thermohaline circulation offers a representation which is adequately complex and yet constitutes a dynamic whole of necessarily global significance. Something of this kind is required, but initially this has mnemonic advantages to facilitate discussion. In other words the argument is that each of the "surface-currents" identified above, could be associated with one of the distinct surface ocean currents in the maps below. Similarly, each of the "under-currents" identified above would be associated with one of the deep ocean currents identified in the images below.

A useful approach to recognizing that is through the global ocean thermohaline circulation, as mentioned above***. A sense of that movement, and its vital importance to the environment, is offered by maps such as the following. These invite discussion from distinct perspectives (Transcending One-eyed Global Modelling Perspectives: incorporating under-currents into global circulation of value, 2010; Circulation of the Light: essential metaphor of global sustainability? 2010; Potential Misuse of the Conveyor Metaphor: recognition of the circular dynamic essential to its appropriate operation, 2007)

Schematic indication of Global Thermohaline Ocean Circulation
(images adapted from Wikipedia; see description page))
Thermohaline ocean  circulation Global Thermohaline Circulation
Ocean conveyor (UNEP) There are a number of animations of the ocean conveyor but these do only minimal justice to the challenge of comprehending its dynamics.

The "conveyor belt" metaphor is commonly employed with respect to movement of tectonic plates over the Earth's magma. It is also employed by meteorologists with regard to the jet stream as a high-altitude "river" of fast-moving air acting as a conveyor belt for storms [more]. The metaphor is also employed with respect to the manner whereby space "weather" is brought to the planet by solar wind [more] and to the manner in which sunspots are moved across the surface of the sun prior to erupting into solar storms [more].

The fundamental distinction from conventional "linear" thinking is however exemplified by the contrast between the "Gulf Stream" (readily described and understood as a two-dimensional "one-way" process) and the complex three-dimensional thermohaline circulation of which it is part. This is otherwise described as the great ocean conveyor belt, the global conveyor belt, or, most commonly, the meridional overturning circulation -- complete with complex three-dimensional "twists".

This complex non-linear movement is to be contrasted with the dangerous "linearity" of Ken Wilber's presentation of a "one-way" spiritual "conveyor belt".

The global oceanic conveyor in fact offers a remarkable model (and a symbol of requisite complexity) of the cyclic nature of what Wilber's spiritual conveyor ought to be. This is a collective global analogue to the cycle in a Chinese text T'ai I Chin Hua Tsung Chih (The Secret of the Golden Flower) -- more recently translated by Thomas Cleary (1991) [Note also an online variant translated by Walter Picca in 1964]. The question is why should a mechanical device of the industrial revolution be considered the most imaginative metaphor of spiritual development? Why should an appropriate metaphor not have non-linear qualities to be of requisitely imaginative complexity?

Ironically, whilst Wilber stresses the vital significance of enabling the spiritual conveyor, considerable concern is expressed in parallel at the possibility of an abrupt stopping of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation as a consequence of climate change. There is concern that the disruption of this conveyor sy

stem through global warming may inexorably lead to to a new Ice Age. As cycles both are however a challenge to comprehension. Especially intriguing as a complex model (like Table 1), the ocean conveyor belt reconciles several transformations between different forms of "positive" and "negative" (temperature, density, salinity). It is therefore not inappropriate to associate the foreseen sudden disruption to that global conveyor to intuitions of a spiritual Armageddon (Spontaneous Initiation of Armageddon: a heartfelt response to systemic negligence, 2004).

Mapping options for 144 distinctive features of a dynamic global system

As argued above, the focus is switched from mapping 2x72 tiles onto a globe to mapping 4x72 tiles onto 288 face positions. The design option taken was to reverse the colouring on one set of 144 Mahjong tiles. The assumption is made that the 144 hold 72 "angelic" and 72 "demonic" distinctions, however these are to be interpreted metaphorically. The tile colour reversal on a copy of that set gives an "underworld" variant of a further 144 tiles.

An overly simplistic mapping configuration then offers what is indicated in the left-hand image below. There any overt conflict between 72 "angelic" forces and 72 "demonic" forces is played out in the "upper" hemisphere -- with a covert variant played out in the "lower" hemisphere, to whatever degree it is acknowledged. Four basic colours might have been better used for this purpose, although this sophistication could be understood as a feature of the symbolism of the Mahjong tile designs.

Refining such an attribution, two octants of the upper hemisphere could be used for the "angelic" forces and two for the "demonic" forces, as shown in the second image on the left. This raises the question as to whether the covert attribution is adequately mapped by that approach.

A more detailed approach can be taken by using the distinct face types on the chosen form (as noted above) to intermingle the "angelic" and "demonic" forces. One image on the right attributes tiles to specific face types. The other attributes them randomly. This helps to highlight the question as to how the two forces are arrayed in relation to one another, or whether there is an infiltrated "guerilla/resistance" pattern to be recognized. There is the further question of the overt and covert variants. (However interesting in principle, the aesthetic aspects invite much further attention)

Attribution of two sets of Mahjong tiles to 6-Frequency Octahedral Geodesic Sphere
(showing different possible attributions by octant on 288 faces)
Attribution of two sets of Mahjong tiles to 6-Frequency Octahedral Geodesic Sphere Attribution of two sets of Mahjong tiles to 6-Frequency Octahedral Geodesic Sphere Attribution of two sets of Mahjong tiles to 6-Frequency Octahedral Geodesic Sphere Attribution of two sets of Mahjong tiles to 6-Frequency Octahedral Geodesic Sphere
Generated using Stella Polyhedron Navigator

Of some relevance is the degree of equivalence between the 8x9 pattern of Mahjong tiles and the 8x9 pattern of the angelic/demonic tradition.  An imaginable pattern of "angelic" and "demonic" forces was explored in an earlier exercise (Engaging with Hyperreality through Demonique and Angelique? Mnemonic clues to global governance from mathematical theology and hyperbolic tessellation, 2016).

Indication in 2D of the dynamic nature of a "hyperdimensional" interaction between radically distinctive forces
Alternative experimental configurations alternating between the 72 "angels" and 72 "demons"
Animation of 8 sets of 9
(enlargements for detail: angels / demons)
Animation of 9 sets of 8
(enlargements for detail: angels / demons)
The allocation of sets to the star "tables" in the schematics is based on the tabular form in which the 72 angel names (from the Shemhamphorasch) and the72 demonic sigils (from the Ars Goetia) are typically presented. See other presentations in the Wikipedia List of demons in the Ars Goetia (with comments on differences in variations between sources) and in The Demonic Paradise Wiki
Experimental configuration alternating between the 72 angels and demons Experimental configuration alternating between the 72 angels and demons
The rows are presented "around the tables" in one schematic, and the columns are presented "around the tables" in the other. The sequence around the tables is questionable, demanding further consideration.

The elements of the above animations are presented more clearly in the following animations which help to highlight the distinctive designs that can be used to populate the global configurations presented subsequently.

Animation of sequence of 72 Angel names from the Shemhamphorasch
(in two contrasting representations)
Animation of sequence of 72 demonic sigils from the Ars Goetia
(with matching reversed images)
Animation of sequence of 72 Angel names from the Shemhamphorasch Animation of sequence of 72 Angel names from the Shemhamphorasch Animation of sequence of 72 demonic sigils from the Ars Goetia Animation of sequence of 72 demonic sigils from the Ars Goetia

The exercise with the Mahjong tiles can be repeated (as shown below) using traditional indications of the "angelic" names and "demonic" sigils (as shown above). In the light of the clarification above in terms of the organization of global experience into octants, the design options in the animations distinguish variously between "upper" and "lower" hemispheres -- each divided into quadrants. In an "upper" hemisphere, as characteristic of overt discourse, the lighter variants are located, namely 36 per quadrant. In the "lower" hemisphere, use is made of distinctive of alternatives, notably with a dark background. Clearly the choice of attribution enables contrasting narratives to be illustrated.

Attribution of two sets of symbols of "angels" and "demons" on a 6-Frequency Octahedral Geodesic Sphere
(showing different possible attributions by octant on 288 faces)
Attribution of two sets of symbols of angels and demons on a 6-Frequency Octahedral Geodesic Sphere Attribution of two sets of symbols of angels and demons on a 6-Frequency Octahedral Geodesic Sphere Attribution of two sets of symbols of angels and demons on a 6-Frequency Octahedral Geodesic Sphere Attribution of two sets of symbols of angels and demons on a 6-Frequency Octahedral Geodesic Sphere
Generated using Stella Polyhedron Navigator

The facilities of Stella Polyhedron Navigator can be exploited to wrap a single "demonic" sigil around the globe (as indicated on the left below). This is suggestive of a condition in which civilization is preoccupied or challenged by a particular "problem" -- as with COVID-19. Global mappings such as those above can be unfolded and refolded as shown in the animation on the right -- offering another insight into the confrontation of forces in 2D, in contrast with that in 3D.

Animations suggestive of further insights from any mapping process
Wrapping a single demonic sigjl around the globe Clustering 72 sigils in a "feeding frenzy"
implying future recognition of a
systemic map of "wicked problems"
Folding and unfolding a global array
imagining the hypothetical "battle formation"
between forces of "good" and "evil"?
Globe enwrapped by a single demonic sigil Animation suggestic of an asystemic feeding frenzy in governance Folding and unfolding of configuration of angelic and demonic forces
Globe enwrapped by a single demonic sigil
    Generated using Stella Polyhedron Navigator

As designs, the traditional demonic sigils bear a curious resemblance to combinations of electronic symbols on any modern circuit diagram or system map. Rather than the unfolded orderly pattern of "demons" evident in the animation on the right above (or in the earlier stellar table animation), the sigils can be clustered in a disorderly manner -- a "feeding frenzy" -- as shown above (centre). Missing of course is the connectivity between them -- readily recognized in terms of a similar disconnect between institutions of governance or between the academic faculties responsible for modern knowledge architecture -- easily understood as dominated by a budgetary "feeding frenzy".

As with the elements of any system diagram -- drawn black on white -- the systematic ordering of the array of sigils can be provocatively explored through the grid layout of a board game as shown below. The simple animation suggests potential connectivity of forces -- offering a challenge analogous to that of Rubik's Cube and its more complex variants or possibly sudoku. This raises the question as to what is a coherent solution to their connectivity in strategic terms. On an interactive display the sigils could be positioned to form patterns on the basis of the evident complementarity of connectors in their design. A related approach was previously explored with respect to the UN's SDGs (Interplay of Sustainable Development Goals through Rubik Cube Variations: engaging otherwise with what people find meaningful, 2017).

"Dance of the Demons"?
Animation of indicative movement of 72 demonic forces
using sigils on a traditional game board
Truncated icosahedron -- football pattern
displaying 2 sets of 32 demons linked by an octahedron
displaying a set of 8 demons (thus totalling 72)
Animation of indicative movement of 72 demonic forces
Version A
mapping of 32
Mapping of 8 Version B
mapping of 32
Experimental use of truncated icosahedron to display a sets of 32 demons Experimental use of truncated icosahedron to display a sets of 32 demons
Generated using Stella Polyhedron Navigator

The reference to "demonic" forces in this argument may indeed be irritating to many, despite the repeated allusion to the existence of "evil" by world leaders, and adoption of the term "wicked problem" by the policy sciences. The strategic engagement of secular governance with "problems" can however be considered comparable to the traditional understanding of the engagement of "angelic forces" with the "demons" recognized in religious traditions, especially in the past. The protagonists of many collective initiatives would accept recognition as a "force for good", whether "angelic" or not -- and would readily identify with some such understanding.

The reference to "sigils" could itself be considered obscure. The irony is that many collective initiatives endeavour to frame their strategic engagement in terms of a logo of some kind (World Guide to Logotypes, Emblems and Trademarks of International Organizations,  1997). However complex, the design is seldom as systemically explicit as was  purportedly the intention of the traditional sigil.

Given the widespread popular protests at this time, there is however a delightful irony to the fact that "demonstators" and "demonstrations" obviously share a degree of connotation with the "demonic" -- and are readily perceived in that light by those righteously identifying with "business as usual". The unfortunate tendency to oversimplification is evident in the neglected distinction between "demonic" and "daimonic" (Interweaving Demonic and Daimonic Associations in Collective Memory, 2008). It is perhaps more fruitful to recognize the "daimonic" as an intuitive engagement with higher dimensionality and the "demonic" as cognitive entrapment in the lower dimensionality of practice. The imagined "fall" is then from engagement with higher dimensionality into the operational constraints of praxis.

Governance via paradoxical transformation of global mapping dynamics

Transformation of mapping conventions: This argument has highlighted the challenge of "mapping" as a key to the appropriate comprehension, explanation and communication of complexity. As developed, the possibility of such mapping has been questionably associated with the "faces" of polyhedra with which significance could be associated. There is a case for calling this mapping convention into question through the manner in which significance can be variously associated with all the basic elements of polyhedra, namely faces, edges and points -- which all tend to feature in the mapping process.

It is also relevant to note the manner in which these elements feature as basic metaphors of discourse in governance. Most obviously "points" are made (or "scored"), or upheld as principles. Strategic "lines" are pursued -- with boundary disputes of major concern, as well axes of orientation. Even more problematic is the sense in which "sides" are taken in seeking to ensure some form of possession, dominion, or control of property -- readily framed as a "field", or in "areal" terms, or possibly as a "sphere of influence", evoking preoccupation with hegemony. The dynamics may be most evident in the encounters between opposing parties on sporting fields or in arenas. Far more elusive is the manner in which these relate to a central "hole", so evident in polyhedra. This argument lends itself to extensive development (Engaging with Globality -- through cognitive lines, circlets, crowns or holes, 2009).

In that light the focus on associating significance with 72, 144 or 288 polyhedral sides can then be seen as a constraint on the possibility of global comprehension. There may well be a requisite flexibility relating the elements of an orderly framework -- possibly to be understood as a 3-fold "principle of uncertainty" -- beyond that which is the focus of physics (Garrison SpositoDoes a generalized Heisenberg Principle operate in the social sciences ? Inquiry, 1969).

The challenge of mapping may be as much associated with the options of a 3-fold set of such elements, rather than one alone. This would be consistent with mathematical comprehension of "polyhedra", especially those of higher dimensionality -- perhaps most obvious in the geometrical transformation between a polyhedron and its dual through morphing. Typically this implies a transformation between "points" and "sides". In governance discourse this is suggested by the manner in which "making a point" of a particular kind is interpreted as "taking a side" -- with those on a particular side tending to make a particular point, or to have viewpoint.

Edges as indicative of dynamic relationships: One approach to this possibility is through returning to consideration of the patterns offered by polyhedra of 144 edges, as noted above with respect to 2x72. At the same time there is the challenge as to why analogous patterns are held to be similarly fundamental and valued, most obviously 64-foldness. How are such patterns related to one another in framing global comprehension of complexity? The preceding discussion focused on the role of the prime number factors in enabling sustainable memorability -- with 72 as 23x32, and 64 as 26 (Polyhedral "memory palaces": an ordering pattern for sustainable self-governance? 2020).

From that perspective, the role of polyhedral edges might then be better understood as indicative of system dynamics -- as feedback loops in cybernetic terms. As recognized by Buckminster Fuller: All systems are polyhedra: All polyhedra are systems. (1979, 400.56).This argument can be developed as a means of reframing "wicked problems" -- so-called by the policy sciences, but usefully recognized as a modern take as what were traditionally denoted by demonic sigils (as presented above). Such reframing could then be understood as embedding such distinctive problems in cycles, as separately argued (Encycling Problematic Wickedness for Potential Humanity, 2014; Encycling, enwholing and wholth, 2014; Encycling wickidity in the light of polyhedral viruses and their mutation, 2015).

The argument can therefore be taken further through "interweaving" the threads variously highlighted, deliberately exploiting that metaphor (Interweaving Thematic Threads and Learning Pathways, 2010). Especially intriguing is the confrontation of the 72-edged polyhedra noted above with the 64-edged drilled truncated cube previously explored for mapping purposes (Proof of concept: use of drilled truncated cube as a mapping framework for 64 elements, 2015).

The polyhedra below suggest "mapping" possibilities to be explored in that their cuboctahedral forms are characterized by 64-foldness, 72-foldness or 144-foldness. Especially intriguing is their cubic nature (given its widespread importance to design and architecture), the manner in which they are "holed", and the role that the cuboctahedron plays in the geometry of opposition through its dual the rhombic dodecahedron.

Suggestively related polyhedral forms of potential value for mapping
Truncated cuboctahedron Two-holed drilled
truncated cuboctahedron
truncated cuboctahedron 2
Truncated octahedron 8 Prism-expanded truncated cuboctahedron Drilled
truncated cube
72 edges (3 types), 48 vertices (2 types), 26 faces (3 types) 72 faces (5 types), 144 edges (7 types), 48 vertexes (2 types) 72 faces (5 types), 144 edges (7 types), 48 vertexes (2 types) 88 faces (5 types), 240 edges (11 types), 144 vertexes (6 types) 148 faces (9 types), 312 edges (13 types), 144 vertexes (6 types) 64 edges (9 types), 32 faces (5 types), 32 vertices (4 types)
Truncated cuboctahedron Two-holed drilled truncated cuboctahedron Faceted truncated cuboctahedron 2 Truncated octahedron 8 Prism-expanded truncated cuboctahedron Drilled truncated cube
Generated using Stella Polyhedron Navigator

Experimentally, the cubic form with its 8 corners enables an organization in terms of octants, as discussed above. With its 64 edges, the drilled truncated cube has the advantage that it can be used to hold the dynamics of the decision-making implied by the 64 conditions of the I Ching (and the complex transformations between them). This comprehensive pattern, articulated memorably through metaphor, has lent itself to much extensive commentary and adaptation (Transformation Metaphors -- derived experimentally from the Chinese Book of Changes (I Ching) for sustainable dialogue, vision, conferencing, policy, network, community and lifestyle, 1997).

Of potential interest from another perspective is an unusual polyhedron arising from the process of zonohedrification of a 9-gonal antiprism, as shown below -- with its 144 edges and 72 faces. Whether the systemic challenge is to be understood through 8-foldness or 9-foldness (or both) is clearly a matter inviting further exploration, as discussed separately (Ninefold configuration in practice and its comprehension constraints, 2016).

Views of zonohedrified 9-gonal antiprism with 9-fold symmetry (9*2m)
72 faces (4 types), 144 edges (9 types), 74 vertices (5 types)

Facetting diagram Side view Polar view Unfolded net
Facetting diagram of zonohedrified 9-gonal antiprism with 9-fold symmetry Side view of zonohedrified 9-gonal antiprism with 9-fold symmetry Polar view of zonohedrified 9-gonal antiprism with 9-fold symmetry Unfolded net of zonohedrified 9-gonal antiprism with 9-fold symmetry
Model and displays kindly developed by Robert Webb from Stella Polyhedron Navigator

Logos as institutional global mapping -- of a kind: From the perspective of this argument there is a strange irony to the importance attributed to a logo, especially as a form of intellectual property. It could be caricatured as the ultimate "selfie" of a strategic initiative -- the result of an exercise in self-mapping. Rather than the preoccupation with global mapping as argued above, the logo is the map -- as perceived by the institution in question. It is necessarily constrained by the requirement for reproducibility in 2D, despite the new possibilities of 3D logos embodying subtler insight (Eliciting Insight from Mandala-style Logos in 3D: interactive engagement with mandalas and yantras in virtual reality, 2020).

A logo is necessarily a highly constrained map as a consequence of "projection" -- in both the geometric and psychological senses of the term. It is also a distorted reflection from a particular position on a more comprehensive global map. In the light of any possible polyhedral mapping, there is also the sense in which a logo could be compared with a 2D Schlegel diagram as a mapping into 2D of a polytope of higher dimensionality. Thus the truncated icosahedron as a mapping candidate, noted above for its relation to the association football, can then be represented in a "squashed" form as follows, as discussed separately (Resonance, fullerenes and the Middle East? 2012).

Hyperplane perspective of truncated icosahedron via Schlegel diagrams
with colours distinguishing 12 pentagonal and 20 hexagonal forms, necessarily distorted in the projection.
NB: In each case, the form as a whole is to be counted as one of the facets.
(images initially generated using Stella Polyhedron Navigator, "rectified" and coloured using Adobe)
Centred over a pentagonal facet Centred over a hexagonal facet
Hyperplane perspective of truncated icosahedron via Schlegel diagram Hyperplane perspective of truncated icosahedron via Schlegel diagram

Dance of the logos vs Dance of the demons? In an effort to offer a sense of the dynamics that any future mapping of systemic functional significance might embody (as with wind and ocean current maps), there is a case for illustrating the challenge of connectivity by provocative experiments with various sets of logos -- in the light of the "dance of the demons" animation above. Those of the US Intelligence Community number 16, the UN SDGs are 16 in number (plus a 17th coordinating goal, excluded here), and those of the UN Agencies are approxately 16 in number, some with a variety of exceptional types of relationship to the UN.

Dynamics of patterns that connect -- through dancing sets of logos?
US Intelligence Community UN Sustainable Development Goals UN Specialized Agencies (selection)
Animation of logos of US Intelligence Community Animation of logos of UN Sustainable Development Goals Animation of logos of selected UN Specialized Agencies
Individual logos reproduced from Wikipedia

With respect to the US Intelligence Community, one related possibility of more complex mapping was addressed separately -- in the light of the NATO logo (Envisaging NATO Otherwise -- in 3D and 4D? Potentially hidden faces of global strategy highlighted through polyhedra, 2017). Consideration of a future "great game" was explored in terms of the quest of a meta-pattern of transactional games (Playing the Great Game with Intelligence: authority versus the people, 2013).

There is a degree of irony to the fact that similarly instructive animations could be produced with respect to influential pantheons of civilizations of the past, notably the Olympic Dodekatheon and the Roman Dii Consentes -- whose names and iconography feature to a strange degree in that of the UN Agencies. As with the 16-fold animations above, insight into the relationship between the 12 functions denoted is elusive. This is also characteristic of the primary angels (of a similar number) in the distinctive hierarchies which continue to be considered of such importance in the Abrahamic religions (Angels in Judaism, Christian angelic hierarchy, Angels in Islam).

It would that civilization has a marked tendency to engender such forms of fundamental order -- deemed appropriate -- without being able to comprehend how the distinctive qualitative functions are related in systemic terms (Comprehension of Appropriateness, 1986). There is the strong possibility that the sense of appriopriateness is associated with an intuitive appreciation of the degree of "regularity" of the 12+1 Archimedean polyhedra, as argued separately (Time for Provocative Mnemonic Aids to Systemic Connectivity? 2018).

Together with the 5 even more regular 5 Platonic polyhedra, these can be seen as a reflection of the patterns of both the 12 "supernatural" entities of tradition and of the 16 "surreal" institutional entites of the present. One clarification is offered from the perspective of cognitive psychology (George Lakoff and Rafael E. Núñez, Where Mathematics Comes From: how the embodied mind brings mathematics into being, 2000). Given the prevailing lack of global coherence, there is a case for inhabitual investigation (Mathematical Theology: Future Science of Confidence in Belief, 2011).

Winged logos, laurels and strategic uplift: There is an ironic charm to the manner in which many of the UN Agency logos, and the logo of the UN itself, are endowed with a laurel wreath in the form of distinctive branches. These are traditionally associated with victory, but understood in that context as indicative of the aspirations of the peoples of the world, a symbol of peace -- and exemplifying the "good".

There is an obvious correspondence between such use of encompassing branches of laurel and the iconography of winged angels as embodying values of a higher order implicit to a degree in the preoccupations of human agencies. There is therefore a strange strategic question as to whether such agencies have a remarkable tendency to "rest upon their laurels", or to "wing it", when the implication is that they should somehow "fly", or at least "get off the ground".

Such consideration is typically of major concern in business initiatives which caricatures the distinction between being grounded "like a turkey" or "flying like an eagle". The irony is all the greater in that considerable importance is associated with the necessarily static depictions of eagles in national iconography -- ambigiously imply the possibility of their flight dynamics whilst celebrating their frozen static condition. To the extent that the paired laurel branches of UN agency logos are also suggestive of flight -- even of an "angelic" nature -- their depicted vertical deployment is unfortunately indicative of stasis rather than of a flying modality.

It could be considered extraordinary that "wing" continues to be a fiundamental metaphor in political discourse. There is the obvious irony that those on one wing deprecate the existence and preoccupations of the other -- whilst expecting one-winged initiatives to somehow enable flight (Coordination of Wing Deployment and Folding in Politics: bird flight and landing as complementary metaphors of global strategic coherence, 2018; Counteracting Extremes Enabling Normal Flying: insights for global governance from birds on the wing and the dodo, 2015).

Implications of laurel leaf symbolism for flying: An experimental adaptation of the static laurel-globe imagery to a dynamic winged-globe in flight is shown below in relation to the dynamic implied by the tennis/baseball curve. The 3D rendering of the laurel wreath is discussed separately (Requisite helical cognitive engagement within a global brain, 2019; Transformation of Global Governance through Bullfighting: visual symbols and geometric metaphors, 2009; Game-playing, bull-leaping and laurel wreaths, 2014).

Experimental dynamic wing-rendering to a static laurel-wreath globe
UN logo Animation of views of globe in "flight mode" Tennis-ball curve
Logo of the United Nations Animation of dynamics of winged-globe Animation of dynamics of winged-globe Tennis_ball curve
Repoduced from Wikipedia   As presented above

The globe depicted could be replaced by an animated version (as shown earlier) on which the opposing "angelic" and "demonic" forces are depicted -- or. provocatively otherwise, by a truncated icosahedron, with the stitching pattern of a football (as indicated below, reproduced from a discussion of Requisite complexification of imagery to embody greater significance, 2014). Wing movement also relates to helical organization as suggested by the animation on the right (Requisite helical cognitive engagement within a global brain, 2019). Unfortunately the adaptation of the laurel leaf to suggest such wing dynamics does not include the additional movements so elegantly evident in the manipulation of wings by birds. As depicted, the adaptation is unnecessarily rigid and jerky (due to technical limitations).

Indication of logo design options to encompass global reality
Screenshots and animations inspired by the UN logo design Rotation of Caduceus in 3D
Possible adaptation of UN logo Possible adaptation of UN logo Possible adaptation of UN logo Rotation of Caduceus in 3D

The animation of "wing-movement" as shown is simplistic compared to that required for flight in practice or in relation to the complexity of the tennis-ball curve (discussed above) with its 8-fold transformation of orientation. Of some relevance is the study by Zohaib Parvaiz Rehmat (Design of a "Figure-8" Spherical Motion Flapping Wing for Miniature UAV's, University of Nevada, 2009).

To highlight the 8-fold transformation of orientation, the dynamics suggested by the seemingly simple tennis-ball curve can then be set within the framework of the drilled truncated cube, as shown in the animation below in which the distinctively coloured groups of edges associated with the octants are successively activated and deactivated. That dynamic can be understood as driving the toroidal movement along the tennis-ball curve. In its form as a torus, it invites reflection on how the dynamics of experience are framed by such cyclic movement, as discussed separately (Imagining Toroidal Life as a Sustainable Alternative: from Globalization to Toroidization or back to Flatland? 2019).

Embedding of tennis-ball curve
within drilled truncated cube
Tesseract animation
simulating requisite 4-dimensionality?
Inversion of the cube
as central to the drilled truncated cube
Embedding of tennis-ball curve within drilled truncated cube Tesseract animation Schatz cube inversion
NB: Coordination of timing yet to be ensured by Jason Hise [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons See video of the complete cycle
by Sergey Bederov of Cortona3D

Emphasizing the element of paradox, deriving from the cognitive challenge of dimensionality greater than 3D, the central cube of the animation on the left could then be understood as subject to a dynamic provocatively indicated by the central animation (World Introversion through Paracycling: global potential for living sustainably "outside-inside", 2013). It should be noted that such geometry is central to articulations of the logic of oppositional geometry (Reframing forms of connectivity through the logic of oppositional geometry, 2020). Of related interest is the animation of the counter-intuitive inversion of the cube, shown on the right above, as described separately (Eliciting the dynamics of the cube: reframing discourse dynamics, 2019). The interactive version of the complete cycle was produced with with formulae kindly provided by Charles Gunn.

Although intuitively evident to a degree, the manner in which 64-fold, 72-fold and 144-fold significance is transformed between the polyhedral configurations above calls for further reflection. The cognitive challenge -- and potentially that of governance -- could then be explored as the relation between two variants of the drilled truncated cube. The edge dynamics can then be indicated by the alternation in the highlighting of its 64 elements. This suggests a way of thinking about the relation between patterning of 2x64 (namely 128) and of 2x72 (namely 144).

Comparable illustrations of 16-fold mapping in relation to 64
Drilled truncated cube Logic Alphabet Tesseract BaGua trigrams Truncated octahedron 8
Alternation of wireframe version with embedding of tennis-curve Four-dimensional cube
(see coding) by Shea Zellweger
Cubic 8-fold arrangement of BaGua trigrams
(according to Sung)
Rotation of dual from a 4-fold perspective
Alternation of wireframe version of drilled truncated cube with embedding of tennis-curve The Logic Alphabet Tesseract by Shea Zellweger Cubical representation  of BaGua pattern of I Ching Truncated octahedron 8
  Diagram by Warren Tschantz
(reproduced from the Institute of Figuring)
Reproduced from Z. D. Sung, The Symbols of Yi King or the Symbols of the Chinese Logic of Changes (1934, p. 12) As noted above

Enabling flying capacity with "headgear" -- cognitively comprehended?

It is appropriate to recall that use of the laurel wreath derives from traditional recognition of the highest achievement -- whether in sports, in battle or in aesthetic accomplishments. Crowning with such a wreath featured in depiction of emperors -- a mode which developed into the design of torcs and crowns. How it came to be used by the UN in relation to the globe therefore merits further exploration.

It is also curious to recall the iconography common to the depiction of holiness, most obviously a head endowed with a halo. Some depictions present this as the infinity symbol of mathematics,  of which the lemniscate is the geometrical form. It has been conjectured to be a variant form of a Roman numeral for 1,000 (originally CIƆ, also CƆ (which was sometimes used to mean "many"), or a variant of the Greek letter ω (omega) -- the last letter in the Greek alphabet. That association could be related to the chiliagon -- the polygon with 1,000 sides -- to which a range of Western philosophers have referred, as noted with respect to the "1,000-petalled lotus" of Eastern tradition (Framing crown chakra dynamics in relation to symmetrical polyhedra, 2020).

In modern mysticism, the infinity symbol has become identified with a figure-of-eight variation of the ouroboros, an ancient image of a snake eating its own tail that has also come to symbolize the infinite. As with the related Möbius strip, the lemniscate and the Klein bottle feature extensively in the writings of Steven Rosen (The Self-evolving Cosmos: a phenomenological approach to nature's unity-in-diversity, 2008, pp. 92-93). The many accounts of the "geometry of tennis" include reference to the form of the lemniscate in play (Jack W. Broudy, Secret Game of Tennis, Part 2: The Geometry of Tennis and Life, TennisOne).

With respect to any comprehension of the dynamics of flight, it is curious to note the traditional iconography of the winged helmet. as worn by the gods Hermes and  Mercury -- and later associated with depictions of Norse deities. Such associations are now a common feature of the design of the so-called winged football helmet in the USA. More curious is the form of the  petasos, namely a traditional Greek winged hat that became the symbol of Hermes as the mythological messenger deity (as depicted below).

There is the curious possibility that the design of some hats may be appreciated in popular culture precisely because of the manner in which they are variously reminiscent of fundamental geometric curves of relevance to wing flapping in the dynamics of flying, as with the tennis-ball curve and the lemniscate. Examples include: Akubra, Bicorne, Fedora, Homburg, Panama, Trilby, Tricorne (List of hat styles), with equivalents in hat designs for women. So-called cowboy hats and the Stetson are especially relevant to this argument. In geometry the bicorn is otherwise known as the "cocked hat curve", whereas the tricorn is a recognized fractal.

Given a degree of mathematical challenge to representation of curving brim design, it is intriguing to note that software for that process is the focus of a Chinese patent (Parameterized brim-structure design method on basis of clothing CAD (computer-aided design) software, CN102609565B, 2012). Hat vendors are now offering customers the possibiliuty of designing their own hats.

As a feature of cultural memory, the question to be explored is the insight into cognitive "flying capacity" which is implied by such stylistic preferences. Why are particular hat designs so intimately related to a sense of identity -- exemplified by their careful adjustment when worn? Are such designs to be understood as unconscious mnemonic aids -- faint memories of the dynamics implied in a cognitive "flying capacity" long forgotten? The association is also echoed by the phrase "put a feather in one's cap".

Hat designs with a "winged" geometry
Petasos Hermes wearing a petasos Winged football helmet Stetson
Petasos Hermes wearing a petasos Winged football helmet Stetson
Classical Numismatic Group / CC BY-SA Louvre Museum / Public domain Michigan Wolverines Winged Helmet Wikipedia. / Public domain

Given the shared geometry of the baseball curve and the tennis-ball curve, of particular interest is the cognitive implication of the widely popular baseball cap -- notably worn in photo opportunities by world leaders (Maude Bass-Krueger, Everything to know about the history of the baseball cap, Vogue, 28 May 2019; Jim Lilliefors, Ball Cap Nation: a journey through the world of America's national hat, 2009). Although the cap may be manufactured with a flat visor, users are encouraged to curve the visor around a large softball (Joshua Smothers, How to Shape a Baseball Cap Brim, SportsRec, 16 April 2009).

In the light of the above argument, there is a case for exploring how the visor feature of the baseball cap, and that of the sports visor (typical of tennis and golf), seemingly conform only to a portion of the tennis-ball curve, perhaps just one quarter. What would be communicated were a world leader -- and Donald Trump in particular -- to cultivate photo opportunities with a baseball cap reversed or worn sideways?

Is the appreciation of such headgear (with its visor) associated with a very particular focus in relation to global understanding -- given the manner in which it is attached to the head, and in contrast with the brim encircling the head in the examples above. The question would also extend to the presumably contrary perspective associated with wearing the baseball cap in reverse -- seemingly to assert a distinctive perspective (Why do people wear baseball caps backwards? Quora). Related questions are developed in some detail (with animations) in a separate document (Baseball Cap Implications in the Quest for Global Hegemony: comprehension of elusive order through the dynamics of angels and demons, 2020).

The following animations endeavour to indicate the cognitive embodiment associated with the "brain waves" of flying cognitively (Brainwaves and feedback loops in a global brain? 2019). They were generated by slight modification of an interactive 3D implementation of a hypotrochoid and indicate a relation between various patterns of relevance to this discussion, including: the circle, the tennis-ball curve, and the lemniscate. The animations as presented are all of the same curve, but viewed from different angles.

Animations in 3D of mutually orthogonal views of "brain waves" in flying cognitively?
Animations of one perspective on brain waves in flying cognitively Animations of one perspective on brain waves in flying cognitively Animations of one perspective on brain waves in flying cognitively
Screenshots of a slight adaptation of an interactive 3D model designed by Sergey Bederov of Cortona 3D
-- access to other versions (x3d, vrml)

It is of course the case that users of psychotropic drugs worldwide employ "flying" as a metaphor in description of their experience. It could be said that institutions of global governance need to recover some such capacity -- now only faintly intuited through symbols of cultural memory (Are the UN and the International Community both Brain Dead, 2019).


James Carse. Finite and Infinite Games: a vision of life as play and possibility. Free Prss, 1986

Douglas Hofstadter. I Am a Strange Loop. Basic Books, 2007

Douglas Hofstadter and Emmanuel Sander. Surfaces and Essences: analogy as the fuel and fire of thinking. Basic Books, 2013

George Lakoff and Rafael Núñez. Where Mathematics Comes From: how the embodied mind brings mathematics into being. Basic Books, 2000

O. Neugebauer. A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy. Springer, 1975

Steven M. Rosen. The Self-evolving Cosmos: a phenomenological approach to nature's unity-in-diversity. World Scientific, 2008

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