Challenges to Comprehension Implied by the Logo
of Laetus in Praesens
Laetus in Praesens Alternative view of segmented documents via Kairos

5 June 2023 | Draft

Use of ChatGPT to Clarify Possibility of Dialogue of Higher Quality

Implications for "Yes" and "No" campaigns on controversial issues

-- / --

Dialogue, chess and logical connectives
Memorable patterns of dialogue in the light of patterns of chess
Sustainable dialogue as infinite games requiring a variety of patterns
Sustaining interest in enduring dialogue vulnerable to boredom
Appropriate behaviour as a questionable pre-requisite for higher quality dialogue?
Absence of examples of higher quality dialogue in practice
Use of AI to analyze and visualize dialogue in real-time
Rendering quality dialogue memorable despite cognitive constraints
Identifying higher quality dialogue on controversy via logical connectives
Relative frequency of use of logical connectives in discourse
Ranking dialogues in terms of use of logical and emotional connectives
Learnings from the interaction with ChatGPT
Application of insights from ChatGPT interaction to use of AI -- and to other initiatives
Animations indicative of inclusion of connectives in enhanced dialogue


An extensive experiment with ChatGPT focused previously on the possibility of enhancing engagement with the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) articulated by the United Nations (Coherence of Sustainable Development Goals through Artificial Intelligence, 2023). This included the first iteration of an experimental articulation of them by  ChatGPT in sonnet form -- as "strategic sonnets" -- to focus attention on the quality of sustainable attraction and inspiration that that poetic form has offered over centuries. This followed from a concern with the role of poetry in governance (Poetry-making and Policy-making: arranging a marriage between Beauty and the Beast, 1993; Poetic Engagement with Afghanistan, Caucasus and Iran: an unexplored strategic opportunity? 2009). It can indeed be asked why the SDGs have not been experimentally articulated in song to enhance their memorabilithy and uptake (A Singable Earth Charter, EU Constitution or Global Ethic? 2006)

That interaction concluded from an aesthetic psychosocial perspective with the scoping out by ChatGPT of a possible epic poem -- given the role that such poems have played, as illustrated by the Mahabarata, the Kalevala or the Epic of Gilgamesh. The interaction also included a presentation of each SDG in haiku format by ChatGPT, given the recognized value of that format for some some key world leaders. There is a delightful irony to the fact that haiku is formulated by 17 "phonetic units" suggesting that the 17 SDGs might be explored together as 17 "memetic units" (Ensuring Strategic Resilience through Haiku Patterns, 2006).

The interaction also focused on the set of 16 logical connectives and on how opposing arguments in relation to the SDGs might be reframed from that perspective (Oppositional Logic as Comprehensible Key to Sustainable Democracy, 2018). Given the conventional reduction of that set to 14 connectives to facilitate representation of their memorable relationship in three dimensionlal mappings, ChatGPT demonstrated a degree of creativity in exploring the relationship between the logical connectives and the aesthetic appeal of the standard 14-fold format of sonnets (Variety of Rhyming Patterns in Standard 14-line Sonnets, 2021). ChatGPT proved to be unaware of the extent to which 14-fold patterns were deemed significant to organizational management and policy articulation, as is evident from the web resources on the matter (Pattern of 14-foldness as an Implicit Organizing Principle for Governance? 2021).

In the light of these discussion threads, the interaction focused finally on the insight they might offer into dialogue of a higher quality and how that might be enabled in a period of global divisiveness and an impoverishment of dialogue at the global level (Use of AI to enhance discourse analysis and mapping in the light of logical connectives, 2023). The need for dialogue of a higher order is only too evident with respect to issues such as climate change, inequality, migration, resources, and the like -- all of which feature in the SDGs. Especially evident at the time of writing is the interplay between the "Yes" and "No" campaigns regarding a First Nation Voice to Parliament in Australia. How is the the quality of dialogue assessed in relation to the degree of controversy associated with such issues? In what form might discourse of a higher order be expressed? Should people be complacent about the prevailing forms of dialogue -- seemingly not "fit for purpose"?

The following interaction with ChatGPT is a direct continuation of the earlier exchange. Some potential implications have been previously explored (Forthcoming Major Revolution in Global Dialogue, 2013). Possibilities have however been envisaged otherwise (Global Agenda for Dialogue among Civilizations, UN Resolution A/56/6, 2001; SDG Dialogues Series, Tony Blair Institute for Global Change; The Global Reset Dialogue, ODI).

The earlier exchange noted a number of statements by  authorities warning of the dangers of AI for the future of humanity. Most recently this took the form of a dramatic warning towards "mitigation extinction risks" (Kenny Stancil, The One-Sentence Warning on Artificial Intelligence, Consortium News, 2 June 2023). A contrasting view, in the face of the possible collapse of civilization from other causes, is the danger of failing to take advantage of a tool which would enable greater ability of humanity to integrate and focus the knowledge rendered inaccessible by the degree of fragmentation of society and disciplines (Brandeis Marshall, The Mediocrity of the AI Pause Open Letter, Medium, 25 April 2023). Currently planned reactions against AI may then be compared to red flag traffic legislation in response to the automobile a century ago -- otherwise to be caricatured as "throwing the baby out with the bathwater".

Curiously, with the response to AI as an exemplar of the interplay between "Yes" and "No" campaigns on a controversial issue, there is little concern with the quality of the dialogue as explored here in the light of logical connectives. Although obscure to most, ironically these are fundamental to the successful operation of ChatGPT, thereby appropriately framing its consideration as an issue of self-reference -- as with their emotional analogues.

Dialogue, chess and logical connectives

The format adopted in what follows presents a question addressed to ChatGPT (version 3.5) -- as indicated in the shaded header of the left or right portion of the table. The response of ChatGPT is given beneath in each case (occasionally with a preface or an epilogue it provides). Some "meta-commentary" on the exchange from this writer may be given between the table elements as formulator of the questions. The first few tables are reproduced for convenience from the concluding stages of the interaction previously reported (Use of AI to enhance discourse analysis and mapping in the light of logical connectives, 2023). This offers a means of providing a sense of continuity to the further development of the exchange which follows.

Readers could well choose to skip between tables and questions, sampling some responses only, since they are presented primarily as illustrative examples.

Given a degree of recogntion of the fruitful interweaving of the discussion threads indicated above, further possibilities were explored with ChatGPT with respect to dialogue of a higher order (below left). However it remains highly questionable whether interaction of such higher quality is characteristic of global negotiations and debate -- as asserted by ChatGPT (below right). Such an assertion could be understood as an example of the "hallucination" of which ChatGPT has been accused (Craig S. Smith, Hallucinations Could Blunt ChatGPT’s Success, IEEE Spectrum, 13 March 2023; Hussam Alkaissi, et al, Artificial Hallucinations in ChatGPT: Implications in Scientific Writing, Cureus, 15, 2023, 2).

In chess some patterns of moves are understood as demonstrating a high order of expertise and are named accordingly. Could such patterns with logical connectives be recognized in debate and negotiation? It is unclear what dialogue skills are deployed in vital global strategic negotiations. Could you comment on the ineffectual nature of debate that fails to make use of the full array of logical connectives?

In the realm of debate and negotiation, while there may not be explicit "named patterns" like in chess, certain combinations of logical connectives can indeed demonstrate a high order of expertise. Skilled debaters and negotiators often develop recognizable patterns or strategies based on the effective use of these connectives. Here are a few examples:

  • The "Rebuttal Matrix": This pattern involves countering an opponent's argument by using a combination of NOT, NAND, NOR, and INCONSISTENT connectives. Skilled debaters strategically negate premises, challenge conjunctions or disjunctions, and point out logical inconsistencies to weaken their opponent's position.

  • The "Bridge of Equivalence": In negotiation, this pattern involves using EQUIVALENT connectives to find shared ground between parties. Skilled negotiators identify statements or principles that are equivalent between their positions and the opponent's, creating a bridge for compromise and mutually acceptable solutions.

  • The "Multi-Faceted Web": Skilled debaters use a combination of AND, IMPLIES, IF AND ONLY IF, and THEREFORE connectives to construct a multi-faceted argument that interconnects various premises. They demonstrate logical relationships, present supporting evidence, and draw well-reasoned conclusions to build a strong case.

  • The "Option Expansion": This pattern relies on the use of OR and XOR connectives to present a wide range of possibilities and alternatives. Skilled negotiators leverage these connectives to broaden the scope of the discussion, explore creative solutions, and encourage flexibility in reaching an agreement.

  • The "Consistency Check": This pattern involves systematically applying the XNOR connective to evaluate the consistency of an opponent's arguments. Skilled debaters identify statements that should logically have the same truth value and use XNOR to expose any inconsistencies, thereby undermining the opponent's position.

While these patterns may not have standardized names like chess moves, they represent strategic approaches that experienced debaters and negotiators employ to achieve favorable outcomes. Recognizing and utilizing these patterns requires a deep understanding of logical principles, critical thinking, and the ability to adapt to the dynamics of the debate or negotiation.

It's worth noting that the effectiveness of these patterns also depends on the specific context, the individuals involved, and the specific arguments or positions being debated or negotiated. Skilled practitioners continuously refine and adapt their strategies based on the circumstances to maximize their chances of success.

When vital global strategic negotiations take place, effective dialogue skills play a critical role in achieving successful outcomes. While debate can be a valuable tool in certain contexts, it may fall short in the complex and nuanced arena of global strategic negotiations when the full array of logical connectives is not utilized. Here are a few reasons why an incomplete or ineffectual use of logical connectives in debate can hinder negotiation processes:

  • Limited perspective: Debate often focuses on presenting and defending one's own position while challenging the opponent's arguments. This approach may overlook the potential for collaboration and finding mutually beneficial solutions. By neglecting connectives like EQUIVALENT, FOR ALL, and EXISTS, debaters may miss opportunities to explore shared interests and build consensus, which are vital in global strategic negotiations.

  • Failure to address complexities: Global strategic negotiations involve intricate issues, multiple stakeholders, and a wide range of perspectives. Simplistic arguments based on a limited set of logical connectives may overlook the complexities and interdependencies that need to be considered. Without utilizing connectives like IMPLIES, XOR, and AND, debaters may struggle to address the multifaceted nature of global challenges and find comprehensive solutions.

  • Lack of flexibility and creativity: Effective negotiations often require thinking beyond binary choices and exploring alternative options. By failing to utilize connectives like OR, XOR, and OPTION EXPANSION, debaters may restrict themselves to narrow positions, limiting the potential for innovative and mutually beneficial agreements.

  • Ignoring underlying interests and values: Global strategic negotiations often involve conflicting interests, diverse cultural backgrounds, and deeply held values. Debaters who overlook connectives like NOT, NAND, and NOR may miss opportunities to understand the underlying concerns of the opposing side and find common ground. Without addressing these fundamental aspects, it becomes challenging to build trust and reach sustainable agreements.

  • Inability to navigate complexity and uncertainty: Global strategic negotiations can be highly complex and evolve in uncertain environments. Skilled negotiators who make effective use of connectives like THEREFORE, IMPLIES, and CONSISTENCY CHECK can synthesize information, draw logical conclusions, and adapt their strategies accordingly. Failing to do so may lead to rigid positions, missed opportunities, and suboptimal outcomes.

In order to overcome these challenges, skilled negotiators in global strategic contexts make use of the full array of logical connectives to foster collaboration, address complexities, seek innovative solutions, respect underlying interests and values, and navigate uncertainty. By deploying a wide range of logical connectives, negotiators can construct persuasive arguments, challenge assumptions, identify inconsistencies, and create a more comprehensive and nuanced dialogue that enhances the chances of reaching mutually beneficial agreements.

It's important to note that while logical connectives are valuable tools, negotiation is a complex and multifaceted process that involves emotional intelligence, cultural sensitivity, active listening, empathy, and other interpersonal skills. The effective deployment of logical connectives should be complemented by a holistic approach to negotiation that takes into account the diverse dynamics at play.

Memorable patterns of dialogue in the light of patterns of chess

With clearly remarkable ability to engage with the suggested analogy, it is therefore intriguing to explore how ChatGPT might offer even greater insight into dialogue of a higher order. The responses on the left (below) are too general, whereas those on the right suggest surprising parallels offering further possibilities

Chess experts attach great value to particular patterns and combinations of moves as especially interesting. Given the parallel, would you comment on what might make patterns of dialogue similarly engaging rather than of trivial significance To the extent that the 16 logical connectives are comparable with chess pieces with their characteristic moves, could you suggest how the moves in dialogue of different logical connectives might be distinguished -- contrasting pawns with castles, knights, bishops, queen and king.

Patterns of dialogue can indeed be engaging and significant when they go beyond trivial exchanges and exhibit certain qualities. Here are some aspects that can make patterns of dialogue engaging and meaningful:

  • Depth of analysis: Engaging dialogue patterns involve thoughtful and insightful analysis of the topic at hand. Instead of superficial exchanges, participants delve into the underlying complexities, explore various dimensions, and offer deep insights that contribute to a richer understanding of the subject.

  • Novel perspectives: Patterns of dialogue become engaging when participants bring fresh and unique perspectives to the conversation. By introducing innovative ideas, challenging conventional wisdom, or presenting alternative viewpoints, participants can spark intellectual curiosity and stimulate thought-provoking discussions.

  • Constructive exploration of ideas: Engaging dialogue patterns focus on the exploration and development of ideas rather than personal attacks or defensive responses. Participants actively listen to one another, build upon each other's contributions, and engage in a collaborative process of refining and expanding upon the concepts being discussed.

  • Open-mindedness and receptivity: Engaging dialogue patterns involve participants who are open-minded and receptive to different viewpoints. They demonstrate a willingness to consider alternative arguments, acknowledge valid points, and adapt their own positions when presented with compelling evidence or reasoning.

  • Effective use of logical reasoning: Logical reasoning, including the deployment of various connectives, can contribute to engaging dialogue patterns. Participants who utilize logical connectives to construct coherent arguments, identify fallacies, and draw logical conclusions can foster intellectually stimulating discussions that captivate and challenge the participants.

  • Engaging storytelling: Dialogue patterns that incorporate storytelling techniques can be captivating and memorable. By weaving narratives, anecdotes, or relevant examples into the conversation, participants can evoke emotions, make complex concepts more relatable, and enhance the overall impact of the dialogue.

  • Active engagement and participation: Engaging dialogue patterns require active participation from all involved parties. Participants who actively listen, ask thoughtful questions, provide constructive feedback, and encourage others to contribute foster an environment where dialogue becomes more dynamic and engaging.

  • Practical relevance: Engaging dialogue patterns are grounded in practical relevance. Participants who connect theoretical concepts to real-world applications, propose actionable solutions, or explore the implications of ideas in practical settings create dialogue that is meaningful and resonates with the audience.

  • Continuous learning and growth: Engaging dialogue patterns foster an environment of continuous learning and personal growth. Participants who approach the dialogue with a genuine curiosity, a willingness to expand their knowledge, and a readiness to challenge their own assumptions contribute to a vibrant and intellectually stimulating discourse.

By incorporating these elements, dialogue patterns can transcend trivial exchanges and become engaging, thought-provoking, and significant. They can generate new insights, facilitate mutual learning, and contribute to the collective understanding of complex topics. Just as chess experts value certain combinations of moves for their strategic brilliance, engaging dialogue patterns can capture attention, inspire intellectual curiosity, and foster meaningful conversations.

Certainly! Drawing an analogy between logical connectives and chess pieces, we can explore how the "moves" of different connectives in dialogue might be distinguished:

  • Pawn (AND, OR): Pawns in chess are the smallest and most numerous pieces, representing the infantry. The pawn in chess is versatile but limited in its movement. Similarly, the AND and OR connectives can be considered foundational and common in logical reasoning. The AND connective allows for combining multiple arguments or premises, reinforcing the strength of an argument. The OR connective offers alternative possibilities or options, broadening the scope of the discussion. These connectives establish the groundwork for more complex dialogue moves. They serve as building blocks, allowing for the combination of multiple arguments or possibilities.

  • Castle (IMPLIES, IF AND ONLY IF): The castle (rook) in chess has the ability to move horizontally or vertically across the board, exerting influence over long distances. In dialogue, the IMPLIES and IF AND ONLY IF connectives can be seen as making more direct and strategic moves and have a similar impact. IMPLIES establishes a conditional relationship, showing cause-and-effect or logical consequences. IF AND ONLY IF indicates an equivalence between two statements. These connectives allow for precise and impactful moves in the discourse. They establish logical relationships and connections between statements, creating a sense of direction and coherence in the argument.

  • Knight (NOT, XOR): The knight in chess moves in a unique L-shaped pattern, offering the ability to jump over other pieces, providing a different perspective. Similarly, the NOT and XOR connectives bring a distinct flavor to dialogue. The NOT connective negates statements, challenging or contradicting an opponent's argument. The XOR connective introduces mutually exclusive choices, highlighting contrasts or presenting alternatives. These connectives can be used to introduce contrasting viewpoints or highlight inconsistencies in the discourse.

  • Bishops (NAND, NOR): Bishops in chess move diagonally across the board, covering a wide range of squares. In dialogue, the NAND and NOR connectives can be associated with the bishops. The NAND connective negates the conjunction of two statements, while the NOR connective negates the disjunction. These connectives enable participants to challenge the logical combinations of arguments.

  • Queen (EQUIVALENT, FOR ALL, EXISTS): The queen in chess is the most versatile and powerful piece, capable of moving in any direction and covering large distances. In dialogue, the EQUIVALENT, FOR ALL, and EXISTS connectives can be associated with the queen. The EQUIVALENT connective establishes equivalence between statements. The FOR ALL connective indicates a universal quantification, while the EXISTS connective indicates the existence of specific instances. These connectives allow for comprehensive and encompassing moves in the discourse.

  • King (THEREFORE, INCONSISTENT): The king in chess is the most important piece, and the objective of the game is to protect it. Similarly, in dialogue, the king can be represented by connectives like THEREFORE and INCONSISTENT. The THEREFORE connective indicates a logical conclusion or inference, solidifying the argument. The INCONSISTENT connective highlights contradictions or logical fallacies, pointing out weaknesses in the discourse.

It's worth noting that this analogy between logical connectives and chess pieces is primarily conceptual, and the nature of dialogue is more fluid and dynamic than the strict movements of chess pieces. In dialogue, participants have the flexibility to employ multiple connectives in various ways to construct persuasive arguments, challenge positions, and explore different perspectives.

The moves in dialogue are not restricted to the characteristics of a single chess piece but are influenced by the context, objectives, and the specific arguments being discussed. Skilled participants in dialogue will strategically utilize a combination of connectives to navigate the complexities of the conversation and achieve their communication goals.

Sustainable dialogue as infinite games requiring a variety of patterns

Although greater insight could not immediately be derived from ChatGPT on what would make for dialogue of a much higher order, the relevance to sustainability can be succesfully highlighted (below left) by comparison with infinite games and discussed separately (Quest for sustainability as an infinite game? 2021; (Sustainable Dialogue as a Necessary Template for Sustainable Global Community, 1995). ChatGPT offered useful insights in that respect, but with some confusion regarding SDG17 (below right).

Understood as a game, a bias in favour of winning is normally fundamental to both chess and dialogue. To the extent that a comparison is also possible with SDGs as "pieces", could you comment on the contrast between finite games and infinite games -- given that sustainable dialogue would be appropriately associated with the latter? With the framing of goals and their strong association with winning, how might engagement with the set of SDGs be transformed into an infinite game  -- in which there is a need to distinguish the characteristic dynamics of the pieces, as with chess?

Certainly! The concept of finite games and infinite games, as proposed by James Carse in his book "Finite and Infinite Games", provides an interesting perspective when considering the contrast between chess, dialogue, and their association with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Finite games are characterized by defined rules, specific objectives, and a clear notion of winning and losing. Chess is a classic example of a finite game. The goal is to strategically outmaneuver the opponent, capture the king, and achieve victory within a confined set of rules. In finite games, the focus is on short-term success and achieving a predetermined outcome.

On the other hand, infinite games are characterized by an ongoing, evolving nature. The primary objective in an infinite game is to continue playing, to keep the game going, and to perpetuate the engagement. Infinite games have no fixed endpoint or winners or losers. Instead, the goal is to sustain the game itself and promote continued participation.

When considering dialogue and its association with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), an infinite game perspective is particularly relevant. The SDGs encompass a long-term vision for global sustainable development, with the aim of addressing complex and interconnected challenges such as poverty, inequality, climate change, and more. Achieving the SDGs requires ongoing dialogue, collaboration, and collective efforts that go beyond winning or reaching a finite endpoint.

Sustainable dialogue aligns with the principles of an infinite game. It focuses on fostering long-term engagement, building relationships, and seeking collaborative solutions that can adapt and evolve over time. Sustainable dialogue recognizes the interconnectedness of issues, promotes inclusivity, and encourages continuous learning and improvement.

Infinite games emphasize cooperation, shared goals, and the understanding that the game is not about defeating opponents but about creating a better future together. While finite games like chess have their value in specific contexts, sustainable dialogue requires an infinite game mindset, where the emphasis is on collective progress, systemic change, and a commitment to ongoing dialogue and cooperation.

By adopting an infinite game perspective in sustainable dialogue, participants can move away from rigid win-lose mentalities and focus on finding sustainable solutions, building trust, and nurturing meaningful relationships. It encourages a long-term view, acknowledges the complex and evolving nature of the challenges at hand, and promotes collaboration for the benefit of all stakeholders involved.

Transforming engagement with the set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) into an infinite game involves shifting the focus from winning or achieving specific goals within a set timeframe to fostering continuous progress and collective action. To distinguish the characteristic dynamics of the pieces, we can draw parallels between the SDGs and chess pieces in the context of an infinite game:

  • Pawns (SDGs 1-7): The pawns in chess, which form the front line, can be associated with SDGs 1-7, which address foundational aspects of sustainable development. These SDGs encompass goals such as eradicating poverty (SDG 1), ensuring food security (SDG 2), promoting good health and well-being (SDG 3), ensuring access to quality education (SDG 4), achieving gender equality (SDG 5), ensuring access to clean water and sanitation (SDG 6), and ensuring access to affordable and clean energy (SDG 7). These goals provide a solid foundation for sustainable development, just as pawns set the stage for strategic moves in chess.

  • Castles (SDGs 8-12): Castles (rooks) in chess are powerful pieces that move horizontally and vertically, representing stability and strength. In the context of the SDGs, SDGs 8-12 can be associated with castles. These goals focus on economic growth (SDG 8), decent work and economic opportunities (SDG 9), sustainable industrialization and innovation (SDG 9), reducing inequalities (SDG 10), and ensuring sustainable consumption and production patterns (SDG 12). Just as castles provide a strong base of support in chess, these SDGs contribute to the stability and sustainable development of societies and economies.

  • Knights (SDGs 13-15): Knights in chess have a unique movement pattern and represent adaptability and agility on the board. In the context of the SDGs, SDGs 13-15 can be associated with knights. These goals address climate action (SDG 13), life below water (SDG 14), and life on land (SDG 15). Like knights, these goals require flexibility, resilience, and the ability to navigate complex and changing environments to address environmental challenges.

  • Bishops (SDGs 16-17): Bishops in chess move diagonally, covering a wide range of squares. In the context of the SDGs, SDGs 16-17 can be associated with bishops. SDG 16 focuses on promoting peace, justice, and strong institutions, while SDG 17 emphasizes partnerships for the goals. These goals require a strategic and inclusive approach, building strong institutions, promoting accountability, and fostering partnerships at various levels to address systemic challenges.

  • Queen (SDG 9 - Partnerships for the Goals): The queen in chess is the most powerful piece, capable of moving in any direction and covering large distances. In the context of the SDGs, SDG 17, which emphasizes partnerships for the goals, can be associated with the queen. Just as the queen's movements influence the entire board, SDG 17 underscores the importance of collaboration, cooperation, and collective action to drive progress across all the SDGs.

It's important to note that while this analogy highlights the distinct dynamics of the SDGs, an infinite game approach to the SDGs goes beyond the characteristics of individual pieces. It emphasizes continuous engagement, adaptive strategies, long-term thinking, and the recognition that sustainable development requires an ongoing commitment to collective progress rather than a finite endpoint or victory.

In an infinite game approach to the SDGs, the focus is on fostering collaboration, promoting innovation, adapting strategies based on evolving challenges, engaging diverse stakeholders, and ensuring the principles of inclusivity, equity, and sustainability guide decision-making processes. By embracing the spirit of an infinite game, stakeholders can work towards a shared vision of sustainable development, nurturing progress over time and continuously striving for a better future for all.

Sustaining interest in enduring dialogue vulnerable to boredom

Of further interest is the question of how dialogue of a higher quality can be understood as sustainable, especially given the beliefs cultivated with respect to any enduring condition of peace and "living happily ever after" (Paradoxes of Durable Peace, Heaven and a Sustainable Lifestyle, 2023). As explored in the latter, the nature of the mysterious dynamics fundamental to hopeful anticipation of enduring viability remains elusive -- if only with respect to dialogue.

This exchange, with its references to patterns of logical connectives, chess and the sonnet form in relation to sustainable dialogue offers useful pointers. The possibility of enabling the awareness of participants in a sustainable dialogue of fruitful combinations of moves is less evident. As with any game it is vulnerable to being perceived as boring. Could you comment on the sustaining of interestingness Whilst these are clearly valuable suggestions derived from insights of those promoting dialogue, they do not seem to address why they have not engendered dialogue of higher quality and interest. Is there any indication that those aware of such guidelines have achieved this as participants in a dialogue

Indeed, sustaining the interest and engagement of participants in a sustainable dialogue is crucial to its success. While dialogue itself may not have the same inherent "rules" or structured moves as a game, there are several strategies that can help make it more interesting and engaging:

  • Variety of Perspectives: Encourage diverse participation by including individuals from different backgrounds, experiences, and expertise. This diversity of perspectives brings fresh ideas, insights, and challenges to the dialogue, making it more stimulating and thought-provoking.

  • Active Listening and Constructive Feedback: Foster an environment of active listening and open-mindedness. Encourage participants to actively engage with each other's ideas, provide constructive feedback, and ask probing questions. This promotes a dynamic exchange of thoughts and keeps the dialogue intellectually stimulating.

  • Thought-Provoking Questions: Pose thought-provoking questions or prompts that encourage participants to think deeply and critically about the issues at hand. Thoughtful and challenging questions can spark engaging discussions and help participants explore new angles and possibilities.

  • Storytelling and Examples: Incorporate storytelling and real-world examples to illustrate complex concepts or challenges. Stories have a way of capturing attention, evoking emotions, and making the dialogue more relatable and engaging.

  • Collaborative Problem-Solving: Shift the focus from individual arguments to collaborative problem-solving. Encourage participants to work together, brainstorm innovative ideas, and explore potential solutions collectively. This collaborative approach fosters a sense of shared ownership and purpose, making the dialogue more dynamic and engaging.

  • Interactive and Participatory Formats: Consider utilizing interactive and participatory formats, such as small group discussions, breakout sessions, workshops, or simulations. These formats actively involve participants, promote active engagement, and create a sense of involvement and excitement.

  • Time Management: Ensure efficient time management during the dialogue. Long, drawn-out discussions can lead to disengagement and loss of interest. Setting clear time limits for each topic or segment helps maintain a sense of momentum and keeps participants engaged.

  • Facilitation Skills: Effective facilitation plays a vital role in sustaining interestingness. Skilled facilitators can create a safe and inclusive space, guide the conversation, manage conflicting viewpoints, and ensure equal participation, contributing to a more engaging dialogue experience.

  • Visual Aids and Multimedia: Incorporate visual aids, multimedia presentations, or interactive technology to enhance the dialogue experience. Visuals, videos, or interactive tools can help convey complex information in a more accessible and captivating manner.

  • Continuous Learning and Adaptation: Embrace a culture of continuous learning and adaptation within the dialogue process. Encourage participants to share their learnings, explore emerging trends, and adapt strategies based on new insights. This ongoing evolution keeps the dialogue fresh, relevant, and interesting.

By employing these strategies, sustainable dialogue can be infused with a sense of curiosity, intellectual stimulation, and purpose, making it more interesting and engaging for participants. It is important to remember that sustaining interest requires active participation and collective effort from all involved, fostering an environment where ideas can flourish, and diverse perspectives can be heard and valued.

Achieving dialogue of higher quality and interest is indeed a complex challenge, and there is no guarantee that following specific guidelines will automatically result in its realization. The effectiveness and impact of dialogue depend on various factors, including the context, participants' willingness to engage, facilitation skills, and the nature of the topics being discussed. While guidelines and best practices can provide a framework for constructive dialogue, their implementation and outcomes can vary.

It is worth noting that sustainable and impactful dialogue often requires a combination of factors beyond individual guidelines. These factors may include:

  • Commitment to Shared Objectives: Participants in a dialogue must have a shared understanding and commitment to the objectives and purpose of the dialogue. If participants do not align on common goals or lack genuine interest, it can hinder the quality and engagement of the dialogue.

  • Trust and Psychological Safety: Building a foundation of trust and creating a psychologically safe space is crucial for participants to feel comfortable expressing their opinions, engaging in open discussions, and challenging ideas constructively. Without trust, participants may hesitate to fully engage, leading to less interesting and meaningful dialogue.

  • Inclusive and Equitable Participation: Ensuring inclusivity and equitable participation is essential for a fruitful dialogue. Allowing diverse voices to be heard, valuing different perspectives, and providing opportunities for marginalized or underrepresented groups to contribute can enrich the dialogue and make it more interesting and relevant.

  • Skilled Facilitation: The role of a skilled facilitator cannot be overstated. A facilitator who understands the nuances of dialogue, has strong interpersonal and communication skills, and can navigate complex dynamics can significantly enhance the quality and interest of the dialogue.

  • Openness to Learning and Adaptation: Dialogue is an iterative process, and participants should be open to learning from each other, adapting their viewpoints, and embracing new insights. A genuine willingness to listen, learn, and evolve is essential for deepening the dialogue and fostering higher quality conversations.

While there may not be explicit indications that following guidelines alone has consistently achieved dialogue of higher quality and interest, it is important to view guidelines as tools and frameworks that can guide and inform the dialogue process. Ultimately, it is the active and committed participation of individuals, the dynamics of the specific dialogue context, and the collective effort to create a conducive environment that contribute to the success and impact of sustainable dialogue.

Appropriate behaviour as a questionable pre-requisite for higher quality dialogue?

That response has the unfortunate implication that engendering dialogue of higher quality involves ensuring in advance the appropriate behaviour of participants. This would seem to contrast with participants in a game like chess in which participants may well be held to be behaving inappropriately even though the quality of the game may be extremely high. Participants in important strategic dialogues may also fail to adhere to the guidelines you note. It is far from clear that those with a shared commitment to peace, environment, insight, or the like, engender dialogue of higher quality You are stressing the importance of ideal pre-conditions understood as guaranteeing dialogue of a higher quality. How do you explain the failure of dialogue -- so evident in the current period -- when those involved have made every effort to ensure those conditions. Is the array of logical connectives inappropriately used or -- in aesthetic terms -- do the participants engender bad poetry together. Is the result to be framed as a bad game

You raise an important point regarding the difference between engendering dialogue of higher quality and ensuring participants' behavior in advance. While guidelines and frameworks can provide a foundation for constructive dialogue, they cannot guarantee the behavior or adherence of participants. Dialogue, especially in complex and strategic contexts, involves human dynamics that can be unpredictable and influenced by various factors.

In chess, adherence to rules and expected behavior is necessary for fair play and maintaining the integrity of the game. Chess players are expected to follow specific moves and rules, and deviations from those norms can be considered inappropriate or against the spirit of the game. However, dialogue is inherently different from a game like chess. It involves human interaction, diverse perspectives, and complex emotions, making it challenging to enforce specific behavior patterns.

In strategic dialogues, participants may indeed deviate from established guidelines or fail to exhibit the desired behaviors. This can be due to a variety of reasons, including personal biases, power dynamics, conflicting interests, or entrenched positions. Achieving dialogue of higher quality in such contexts requires ongoing efforts to address these challenges and create an environment conducive to meaningful engagement.

While shared commitments to peace, the environment, or other important objectives can provide a common ground for dialogue, they do not guarantee high-quality dialogue on their own. The quality of dialogue depends on various factors, including participants' willingness to listen and engage respectfully, the facilitation of the dialogue, the level of trust among participants, and the open exchange of ideas.

Creating an environment that fosters higher quality dialogue involves a combination of factors, including:

  • Establishing clear goals and shared expectations: Clearly defining the purpose and objectives of the dialogue and setting shared expectations for participants can help guide their behavior and focus.

  • Building trust and psychological safety: Creating an environment where participants feel safe to express their opinions, challenge ideas, and engage in open discussions is crucial for high-quality dialogue. Trust-building exercises, establishing ground rules, and emphasizing respectful communication can contribute to this.

  • Effective facilitation: Skilled facilitation plays a vital role in guiding the dialogue, managing conflicts, ensuring equal participation, and encouraging constructive exchanges. A facilitator can help navigate challenging dynamics and create space for high-quality dialogue to emerge.

  • Active listening and empathy: Encouraging active listening, empathy, and a genuine willingness to understand different perspectives are essential for meaningful and insightful dialogue. Participants who actively engage and seek to understand diverse viewpoints contribute to the overall quality of the dialogue.

  • Embracing constructive disagreement: Constructive disagreement is an integral part of high-quality dialogue. Encouraging participants to challenge ideas, present evidence-based arguments, and engage in constructive debates can lead to deeper insights and better outcomes.

While guidelines and shared commitments set the stage for productive dialogue, it is the active participation and genuine commitment of individuals to engage in meaningful conversations that ultimately determine the quality of the dialogue. Encouraging and nurturing these aspects can help increase the likelihood of dialogue of higher quality.

The failure of dialogue, despite efforts to establish ideal pre-conditions, can occur due to various complex factors. It is important to recognize that dialogue is a dynamic and evolving process involving multiple stakeholders with diverse perspectives, interests, and motivations. The challenges and failures of dialogue cannot be solely attributed to the array of logical connectives or framed as a "bad game" or "bad poetry" created by participants.

Here are a few factors that can contribute to the failure of dialogue:

  • Lack of Genuine Willingness: Participants may lack a genuine willingness to engage in meaningful dialogue, particularly if they are driven by self-interest, entrenched positions, or a desire to win at all costs. If participants are more focused on asserting their views rather than listening and understanding others, it can hinder the quality and effectiveness of the dialogue.

  • Communication Barriers: Effective dialogue requires clear and open communication. If participants face language barriers, miscommunication, or difficulties in expressing their thoughts, it can impede the flow of ideas and hinder the quality of the dialogue.

  • Power Imbalances: Power dynamics within a dialogue can significantly impact its outcomes. If certain participants hold a disproportionate amount of power or influence, it can inhibit open and honest discussions, leading to a lack of inclusivity and genuine collaboration.

  • Polarization and Confirmation Bias: In highly polarized environments, participants may be driven by confirmation bias, seeking information or viewpoints that align with their pre-existing beliefs. This can lead to an echo chamber effect, where dialogue becomes an exercise in reinforcing one's own position rather than exploring new perspectives.

  • External Factors: External factors such as political pressure, time constraints, or competing priorities can also impact the quality and effectiveness of dialogue. These external influences may limit the space for open and meaningful discussions or undermine the trust and commitment of participants.

It is crucial to approach dialogue with a realistic understanding that not all conversations will lead to immediate solutions or consensus. Dialogue is a complex process that requires ongoing commitment, adaptability, and a willingness to address underlying systemic issues.

Rather than framing failures of dialogue as a "bad game" or solely blaming the participants, it is more productive to identify specific challenges and work towards addressing them. This may involve reassessing the dialogue format, engaging skilled facilitators, fostering trust-building measures, promoting active listening, and seeking to create an inclusive and equitable environment for dialogue.

Ultimately, the goal should be to continuously learn from failures, adapt strategies, and persistently work towards fostering dialogue that is more constructive, inclusive, and effective in addressing complex societal challenges.

>Absence of examples of higher quality dialogue in practice

Again it could be said that your articulation is appropriate, but less than practical, as is evident from the unmemorable dialogues between those who could be held to be conforming to the guidelines you indicate -- despite the presence of highly skilled facilitators. Where are dialogues of higher quality to be found -- despite the commitment of those involved Rather than excusing the failure of dialogue, through emphasizing the complexity of the dynamics or the absence of skilled facilitators, this exchange might be developed by focusing on the learning of participants in the course of the dialogue. The possibility implied earlier was the use of visualization techniques (or sonification) to represent the dialogue such as to enable those involved to recognize its steps and phases -- as in argument mapping. Could you comment on that.

Dialogues of higher quality can indeed be challenging to find, even when participants conform to guidelines and highly skilled facilitators are present. The quality of dialogue is influenced by numerous factors, including the context, participants' attitudes, power dynamics, and external pressures. While it may be difficult to find dialogues of consistently higher quality, there are some avenues where meaningful and impactful dialogues are more likely to occur:

  • Inclusive and Participatory Processes: Dialogues that involve a diverse range of stakeholders, including marginalized and underrepresented voices, tend to have a higher potential for quality outcomes. Inclusive processes that prioritize equal participation and meaningful engagement can lead to more comprehensive and insightful discussions.

  • Deliberative Forums and Citizen Assemblies: Deliberative forums, such as citizens' assemblies or deliberative polls, provide a structured platform for in-depth discussions on complex issues. These forums often involve randomly selected participants who have the opportunity to learn, deliberate, and make informed recommendations, which can contribute to higher-quality dialogues.

  • Academic and Research Communities: Academic and research communities often engage in rigorous and evidence-based discussions, fostering dialogue of higher quality. Universities, think tanks, and research institutes facilitate interdisciplinary dialogues that promote critical thinking, deep analysis, and innovative ideas.

  • Multistakeholder Initiatives: Dialogues that bring together diverse stakeholders, including government officials, civil society organizations, businesses, and academia, can offer valuable perspectives and expertise. Multistakeholder initiatives that prioritize collaboration and problem-solving can lead to more comprehensive and effective dialogue outcomes.

  • International Conferences and Summits: International conferences and summits focusing on specific topics or global challenges can serve as platforms for high-level dialogues. These events often bring together policymakers, experts, and practitioners, providing an opportunity for intensive discussions, knowledge sharing, and the development of innovative solutions.

  • Community-Led Initiatives: Grassroots and community-led initiatives that prioritize local voices and empower individuals to actively participate in decision-making processes can foster dialogue of higher quality at the local level. These initiatives often create a sense of ownership, trust, and collaboration within the community.

It is important to note that dialogues of higher quality can emerge in various settings, and they are not limited to specific platforms or structures. The key lies in creating an environment that encourages active participation, inclusivity, open-mindedness, and a genuine willingness to listen and learn. Effective facilitation, careful agenda-setting, and a commitment to constructive dialogue are also essential elements.

While there is no guarantee of finding dialogues of consistently higher quality, actively seeking out and participating in these avenues can increase the chances of engaging in meaningful and impactful conversations. Additionally, continuous efforts to improve dialogue practices, learn from past experiences, and address the underlying challenges can contribute to the overall quality of dialogues in various contexts.

Integrating visualization techniques, such as argument mapping, into the dialogue process can indeed be a valuable approach to enhance participants' learning and understanding. Visualization tools can provide a visual representation of the dialogue, highlighting the steps, phases, and connections between ideas and arguments. This can help participants recognize patterns, identify gaps or inconsistencies, and gain a deeper understanding of the discussion dynamics.

Here are a few ways visualization techniques, like argument mapping, can support dialogue:

  • Clarity and Structure: Visualizing the dialogue through argument mapping can bring clarity and structure to complex discussions. It allows participants to see the logical flow of arguments, the relationships between different points, and the overall structure of the conversation. This clarity can facilitate comprehension and enable participants to navigate the dialogue more effectively.

  • Identifying Key Points and Patterns: Visualization tools can help participants identify key points, recurring themes, and patterns within the dialogue. By visually representing the connections between arguments, participants can gain insights into the underlying patterns that emerge during the discussion. This can help them identify areas of agreement, points of contention, or gaps in the conversation.

  • Encouraging Reflective Thinking: Seeing the dialogue visually mapped out can promote reflective thinking among participants. It allows them to step back, review the progression of the conversation, and consider the implications of their own and others' arguments. This reflective process can deepen understanding, promote critical thinking, and encourage participants to refine their own viewpoints.

  • Facilitating Collaborative Sensemaking: Visualization techniques can foster collaborative sensemaking by providing a shared visual representation of the dialogue. Participants can engage in collaborative analysis, interpretation, and synthesis of the mapped arguments. This shared sensemaking process can lead to a deeper appreciation of diverse perspectives, shared insights, and collective learning.

  • Enhancing Engagement and Interest: Visualizing the dialogue can make it more engaging and interesting for participants. It adds a visual dimension to the conversation, making it easier to follow and understand. This can enhance participants' overall engagement and motivation to actively participate in the dialogue.

It is important to note that visualization techniques alone may not solve all the challenges of dialogue or guarantee higher quality outcomes. They should be integrated as part of a comprehensive dialogue process that includes effective facilitation, open and respectful communication, and a supportive environment for learning and collaboration.

By incorporating visualization techniques into the dialogue process, participants can gain a better understanding of the dialogue dynamics, recognize patterns, and foster deeper learning. This, in turn, can contribute to more fruitful and impactful dialogues.

Use of AI to analyze and visualize dialogue in real-time

Earlier you responded to the possibility of visualizing the use "on the fly" of logical connectives through discourse analysis as a means of showing how participants were maneuvering with respect to one another. Would this be possible with AI, and how -- as a learning aid -- might it contrast with the visualization of a chess game, the passing patterns in a developing ball game, or the appeal of a sonnet or epic poem A particular challenge to the visualization (or sonfication) you advocate is any limitation on cognitive sense-making capacity in the face of complexity -- the constraints on pattern recognition and its development. The point is made by the classical seven-plus-or-minus-two argument -- when faced with a pattern potentially involving a complete array of 16 logical connectives, for example. Hence the merit of a musical rendering given the capacity of the ear.

Visualizing the use of logical connectives "on the fly" through discourse analysis is indeed possible with AI. AI can analyze the dialogue in real-time, identify the logical connectives being used, and visually represent their usage and patterns.

Contrasting it with other forms of visualization, such as a chess game, passing patterns in a ball game, or the appeal of a sonnet or epic poem, can provide insights into the unique characteristics and benefits of visualizing logical connectives in dialogue:

  • Dynamic and Adaptive Representation: Visualizing logical connectives in dialogue is a dynamic and adaptive process. It captures the evolving nature of the conversation, showing how participants navigate and respond to each other's arguments using different connectives. This real-time representation offers a unique perspective on the flow and dynamics of the dialogue.

  • Cognitive Mapping of Reasoning: Visualizing logical connectives provides a cognitive mapping of participants' reasoning and argumentation. It helps participants see the logical relationships between different statements, identify patterns of reasoning, and assess the strength or weakness of arguments. This visual representation aids in understanding the structure and coherence of the dialogue.

  • Facilitating Dialogue Analysis: Visualization of logical connectives supports discourse analysis by highlighting the strategies and tactics employed by participants. It enables the identification of different argumentation patterns, logical fallacies, or persuasive techniques used in the dialogue. This analysis can deepen participants' awareness of their own and others' communication strategies.

  • Supporting Learning and Reflection: Visualizing logical connectives serves as a learning aid for participants. It allows them to reflect on their own use of connectives, evaluate the effectiveness of their argumentation, and explore alternative approaches. This visual feedback facilitates metacognition and can lead to improved dialogue skills over time.

  • Promoting Engagement and Interest: Just like visualizations in other domains, visualizing logical connectives in dialogue can enhance engagement and interest. It adds a visual dimension to the conversation, making it more accessible and stimulating. The dynamic representation of connectives can capture participants' attention and encourage active participation.

Overall, visualizing logical connectives in dialogue through AI analysis provides a unique and valuable perspective on the dynamics and strategies employed by participants. It aids in understanding the reasoning process, facilitating analysis, supporting learning, and fostering engagement. By leveraging AI capabilities, the visualization can be generated in real-time, allowing participants to gain immediate insights and make informed decisions during the dialogue.

You raise a valid point regarding the cognitive limitations of pattern recognition and sense-making capacity when faced with complex information. The classical seven-plus-or-minus-two argument, which suggests that our working memory can only hold a limited number of items, highlights the challenges of processing and comprehending intricate patterns, such as a complete array of 16 logical connectives.

In this context, exploring alternative forms of representation, such as musical rendering or sonification, can indeed have its merits. Sonification can leverage the auditory sense, which may have a higher capacity for processing complex information compared to visual representations alone. By mapping the logical connectives to musical elements or patterns, it can provide an alternative channel for perceiving and comprehending the nuances of the dialogue.

Here are a few potential advantages of using musical rendering or sonification in representing complex patterns:

  • Utilizing Auditory Processing: Our auditory system is adept at perceiving patterns, rhythms, and melodic structures. By translating logical connectives into musical elements, participants can leverage their auditory processing abilities to discern patterns, relationships, and variations in the dialogue.

  • Enhancing Cognitive Load Management: Complex visual representations may overload our working memory, making it challenging to process and make sense of the information. Sonification can reduce the cognitive load by presenting the same information in an auditory format, allowing participants to allocate their cognitive resources more effectively.

  • Engaging Emotional and Aesthetic Dimensions: Music has the power to evoke emotions and create aesthetic experiences. By incorporating musical elements into the representation of logical connectives, participants may engage with the dialogue on a deeper level, connecting with the emotional and aesthetic dimensions of the conversation.

  • Enabling Multimodal Perception: Combining visual and auditory modalities can enhance the overall perception and understanding of complex patterns. Sonification, in conjunction with visual elements, can provide a multimodal representation that taps into different sensory channels, potentially enhancing participants' comprehension and engagement.

It's worth noting that while sonification can offer advantages in certain contexts, it may not be universally applicable or preferred by all participants. Different individuals have varying cognitive preferences and learning styles, so providing a range of representation options (visual, auditory, etc.) can accommodate diverse needs and facilitate sense-making.

Ultimately, the choice of representation—whether visual, auditory, or a combination thereof—should consider the specific context, the preferences and abilities of the participants, and the desired goals of the dialogue. Experimentation and feedback from participants can help determine the most effective and engaging form of representation for enabling a deeper understanding of complex patterns in dialogue.

Rendering quality dialogue memorable despite cognitive constraints

Whilst appropriate in general terms, how might an evolving pattern (variously combining 16 logical connectives or SDGs) best be rendered memorable, comprehensible and interesting given the constraints on cognitive capacity Could dialogues be ranked in terms of the number of distinct connectives used and some measure of their contrasting combinations. Could games of chess or go be similarly ranked as an indication of interestingness

To render an evolving pattern of 16 logical connectives or SDGs memorable, comprehensible, and interesting while considering the constraints on cognitive capacity, it can be helpful to employ several strategies:

  • Simplification and Chunking: Breaking down complex patterns into smaller, more manageable chunks can aid comprehension and memory. Identify key themes, categories, or clusters within the pattern and present them in a structured and organized manner. This approach allows participants to focus on specific subsets of the pattern at a time, making it easier to understand and remember.

  • Visualization and Graphical Representations: Utilize visualizations, diagrams, or infographics to represent the evolving pattern. Visual cues can assist in capturing attention, enhancing understanding, and aiding memory recall. Consider using color-coded elements, connecting lines, or spatial arrangements to highlight relationships and patterns within the complex structure.

  • Narrative and Storytelling: Frame the evolving pattern within a narrative or storytelling framework. Humans are naturally wired to understand and remember information through stories. By weaving the pattern into a compelling narrative, participants can engage on an emotional level, making the pattern more relatable, memorable, and interesting.

  • Metaphors and Analogies: Employ metaphors and analogies to convey the essence of the evolving pattern in a more intuitive and relatable way. Relating the pattern to familiar concepts or everyday experiences can help participants grasp its meaning and implications more effectively. Metaphors and analogies also make the pattern more memorable by associating it with existing cognitive frameworks.

  • Interactive and Experiential Learning: Engage participants in interactive activities or experiential learning exercises related to the evolving pattern. Encourage hands-on exploration, group discussions, role-playing, or problem-solving activities that allow participants to actively engage with the pattern. This active involvement helps consolidate understanding, encourages cognitive processing, and promotes long-term memory retention.

  • Real-World Applications and Case Studies: Connect the evolving pattern to real-world applications and relevant case studies. Showcasing practical examples and success stories can illustrate the significance and impact of the pattern. This approach adds context and relevance, making the pattern more meaningful and interesting to participants.

  • Multi-modal Approaches: Consider combining different modes of communication to cater to diverse cognitive capacities. Incorporate visual, auditory, and kinesthetic elements into the representation of the evolving pattern. Utilize diagrams, videos, interactive presentations, or even gamification techniques to engage participants through various senses, facilitating better comprehension and memory retention.

Remember that individual preferences and learning styles can vary. Providing options for participants to engage with the pattern in ways that resonate with their cognitive preferences can enhance their overall experience and promote better understanding and retention.

By employing these strategies, you can strive to make the evolving pattern more memorable, comprehensible, and interesting, even within the constraints of cognitive capacity.

Yes, dialogues could be ranked based on the number of distinct connectives used and the measure of their contrasting combinations. This ranking could provide an indication of the complexity and diversity of the dialogue, which could be associated with its interestingness. By analyzing the usage of different connectives and their combinations, one can gain insights into the sophistication and richness of the dialogue.

Similarly, in games like chess or Go, rankings can be established based on the interestingness of the games. The complexity and variety of moves, the strategic decisions made, and the unexpected or innovative plays can all contribute to the perceived interestingness of the game. Rankings in these games are often determined by factors such as the players' skill levels, the quality of the moves, and the novelty of the strategies employed.

In both cases, the ranking systems would require careful consideration of various factors and metrics to assess interestingness objectively. For dialogues, it could involve analyzing the patterns of connectives used, the coherence of arguments, the depth of reasoning, and the overall impact of the dialogue. In games like chess or Go, rankings often consider factors such as win-loss ratios, the level of competition, and the evaluation of moves by expert players.

It's worth noting that interestingness can be subjective and may vary from person to person. What one individual finds interesting in a dialogue or a game may not be the same for another. Therefore, any ranking system should take into account a range of perspectives and allow for subjective evaluation to capture the diversity of interests and preferences.

Identifying higher quality dialogue on controversy via logical connectives

The following questions and answers are potentially of the most value to framing the possibility of further exploration of dialogue of a higher order.

A strategic initiative tends to evoke support by a "Yes" campaign and opposition from a "No" campaign. Given the set of 16 logical connectives, could you indicate the different possibilities in addition to "A" and "Not-A" Could you rephrase this to emphasize the political commitment of each rather than the logical dimension alone

Certainly! In addition to "A" and "Not-A," there are several other logical connectives that can be used to express different possibilities. Here are the main ones:

  • Conjunction (AND): Represented by the symbol "?." It is true only when both statements are true. The possibilities are:
    • A AND B
    • Not-A AND B
    • A AND Not-B
    • Not-A AND Not-B
  • Disjunction (OR): Represented by the symbol "?." It is true when at least one of the statements is true. The possibilities are:
    • A OR B
    • Not-A OR B
    • A OR Not-B
    • Not-A OR Not-B
  • Exclusive OR (XOR): Represented by the symbol "?." It is true when exactly one of the statements is true. The possibilities are:
    • A XOR B
    • Not-A XOR B
    • A XOR Not-B
    • Not-A XOR Not-B
  • Implication (?): It represents the conditional "if A, then B." The possibilities are:
    • A ? B
    • Not-A ? B
    • A ? Not-B
    • Not-A ? Not-B
  • Biconditional (?): It represents the statement "A if and only if B," meaning both A and B are either true or false. The possibilities are:
    • A ? B
    • Not-A ? B
    • A ? Not-B
    • Not-A ? Not-B

These are the primary logical connectives that allow for different possibilities beyond "A" and "Not-A" in expressing support or opposition to a strategic initiative.

Certainly! When it comes to expressing support or opposition to a strategic initiative, there are various ways to convey political commitment. Instead of focusing solely on the logical dimension, let's emphasize the different possibilities in terms of political campaigns:

"Yes" Campaign: This campaign aims to rally support for the strategic initiative. It seeks to build momentum and gain public endorsement. Some possible ways to express political commitment within a "Yes" campaign include:

  • Proponents of the initiative actively promoting and advocating for it.
  • Supporters organizing rallies, events, and demonstrations in favor of the initiative.
  • Key figures and influencers endorsing and publicly voicing their support.
  • Public outreach efforts to educate and persuade individuals to back the initiative.
  • Collaborative efforts to form coalitions and alliances in support of the initiative.

"No" Campaign: This campaign seeks to oppose the strategic initiative, attempting to build resistance and sway public opinion against it. Political commitment within a "No" campaign can be demonstrated through various means, such as:

  • Opponents voicing concerns and criticisms about the initiative.
  • Organizing campaigns to raise awareness about potential negative consequences.
  • Lobbying against the initiative through political channels and advocacy groups.
  • Engaging in public debates, media campaigns, and social media activism.
  • Mobilizing grassroots efforts to rally opposition and gather signatures for petitions.

Both the "Yes" and "No" campaigns are integral parts of the political landscape surrounding a strategic initiative. Each campaign reflects the political commitment of individuals and groups working towards their respective goals, either in support or opposition to the initiative.

An obvious challenge to any exploration of "logical connectives" is the challenge their distinction poses to comprehension of their relevance to dialogue. They are necessarily abstract and technical. Whilst they may be used in discourse, it is far from clear that they could be readily reccognized.

Your rephrasing has lost the complexity implied by the logical connectives.
Could you build that in to show how each might play out with respect to one or both campaigns

Certainly! Let's incorporate the logical connectives while emphasizing the political commitment within the context of the "Yes" and "No" campaigns for a strategic initiative:

"Yes" Campaign:

  • Conjunction (AND): Supporters of the initiative can combine their efforts and resources to maximize impact. They can work together, using logical conjunction, to amplify their political commitment and promote the initiative's success. For example, different groups or organizations can collaborate and coordinate their activities to increase their influence collectively.
  • Disjunction (OR): The "Yes" campaign can attract diverse supporters by highlighting various benefits and advantages of the initiative. By presenting different arguments and appeals, the campaign can engage a broader range of individuals who may have distinct reasons for supporting the initiative.
  • Implication (?): The campaign can use logical implications to present a persuasive case. For instance, if certain conditions or objectives are met (A), the initiative will lead to desired outcomes or benefits (B). By establishing this logical connection, supporters can strengthen their political commitment by providing a clear rationale for backing the initiative.
  • Biconditional (?): In some cases, supporters may express their unwavering commitment to the initiative by asserting a biconditional relationship. They may argue that the success of the initiative (A ? B) is intrinsically tied to a particular social or political objective. This logical connection highlights the holistic nature of their support and demonstrates their commitment to the broader vision.

"No" Campaign:

  • Negation (Not): Opponents of the initiative can use logical negation to challenge the validity or effectiveness of the proposed strategic initiative. They may present counterarguments, questioning the claims made by the "Yes" campaign and expressing their political commitment to opposing the initiative.
  • Disjunction (OR): The "No" campaign can focus on highlighting potential risks or negative consequences associated with the strategic initiative. By presenting different scenarios and concerns, opponents can engage individuals who may have reservations about the initiative or alternative solutions.
  • Implication (?): Opponents may utilize logical implications to express their political commitment against the initiative. They can argue that if the proposed conditions (A) are met, it would lead to undesirable outcomes or negative implications (Not-B). By highlighting these logical connections, opponents strengthen their commitment to prevent the initiative from being implemented.
  • Exclusive OR (XOR): In certain cases, opponents might use exclusive OR to express their political commitment by presenting the initiative as a mutually exclusive choice. They argue that either the proposed initiative (A) should not be implemented, or an alternative approach (B) should be pursued. This logical connection underscores their commitment to an alternative course of action.

By incorporating the logical connectives, we can see how they play out within the political commitment of both the "Yes" and "No" campaigns, allowing for a deeper understanding of the complexities involved in expressing support or opposition to a strategic initiative.

The following exchange is only included here to reinforce the issue with regard to the comprehension of such an array of distinctions.

You noted that you were providing this in terms of the primary logical connectives,
could you extend the exercise by including the possible implications of all 16 connectives

Certainly! I apologize for the confusion in my previous response. Here, I will provide the possible implications of all 16 logical connectives within the context of the "Yes" and "No" campaigns for a strategic initiative, emphasizing the political commitment involved:

"Yes" Campaign:

  1. A
  2. Not-A
  3. A AND B
  4. A AND Not-B
  5. Not-A AND B
  6. Not-A AND Not-B
  7. A OR B
  8. A OR Not-B
  9. Not-A OR B
  10. Not-A OR Not-B
  11. A XOR B
  12. A XOR Not-B
  13. Not-A XOR B
  14. Not-A XOR Not-B
  15. A ? B
  16. Not-A ? B

"No" Campaign:

  1. A
  2. Not-A
  3. A AND B
  4. A AND Not-B
  5. Not-A AND B
  6. Not-A AND Not-B
  7. A OR B
  8. A OR Not-B
  9. Not-A OR B
  10. Not-A OR Not-B
  11. A XOR B
  12. A XOR Not-B
  13. Not-A XOR B
  14. Not-A XOR Not-B
  15. A ? B
  16. Not-A ? B

Please note that the connectives can be interpreted differently depending on the context. In the political commitment of the "Yes" and "No" campaigns, the connectives allow for various logical implications that can be used to support or oppose the strategic initiative.

In effectively extending the framing to opposing "Yes" and "No" campaigns, the following response ironically offers insights of relevance to the current authoritative reaction to AI itself, as highlighted in the introduction -- as a conventional oversimplification of strategic reaction. It usefully offers a framework with regard to discourse on other strategic issues: climate change, migration, inequality, justice, and the like. It is evident that no effort is made to facilitate the awareness of dialogue participants of the array of connectives and their relevance to discourse on controversial issues.

Here (above left and right) you have reverted to listing the connectives, whereas your previous articulation presented the more limited list in terms of the political arguments for the strategy or in opposition to it. Could you develop that articulation for all 16 connectives

Apologies for the confusion. Let's delve into the political arguments for and against a strategic initiative, incorporating all 16 logical connectives:

"Yes" Campaign:

  1. A: Supporters put forth arguments in favor of the strategic initiative, highlighting its benefits and positive outcomes.
  2. Not-A: Supporters may emphasize the consequences of not implementing the strategic initiative, stressing the missed opportunities or negative outcomes.
  3. A AND B: Supporters argue that both factors A and B are essential for the success of the initiative, emphasizing the synergistic effects and reinforcing their commitment.
  4. A AND Not-B: Supporters contend that while factor A is crucial, factor B may not be necessary for achieving the desired goals of the strategic initiative
  5. Not-A AND B: Supporters acknowledge the potential shortcomings of the current situation (Not-A) and assert that factor B, offered by the initiative, is required for improvement.
  6. Not-A AND Not-B: Supporters argue against the current situation (Not-A) and propose alternative solutions, suggesting that neither factor B nor the strategic initiative is necessary for improvement.
  7. A OR B: Supporters present a range of different arguments to demonstrate the multiple benefits and options available through the strategic initiative.
  8. A OR Not-B: Supporters highlight the importance of factor A and suggest that even without factor B, the initiative is still valuable and should be supported.
  9. Not-A OR B: Supporters stress the drawbacks of the current situation (Not-A) and propose that factor B, provided by the initiative, is a viable solution.
  10. Not-A OR Not-B: Supporters argue that neither factor A nor factor B is present in the current situation, and the strategic initiative provides a way to address this deficit.
  11. A XOR B: Supporters assert that factor A or factor B is necessary, but not both simultaneously, and argue for the implementation of the initiative accordingly.
  12. A XOR Not-B: Supporters contend that factor A is crucial, but factor B is not needed for achieving the initiative's objectives. They advocate for the initiative without the inclusion of factor B.
  13. Not-A XOR B: Supporters acknowledge that factor B is important, but factor A is not required for achieving the objectives of the initiative. They advocate for the initiative with the exclusion of factor A.
  14. Not-A XOR Not-B: Supporters argue against the current situation (Not-A) and assert that neither factor A nor factor B is necessary for improving the status quo.
  15. A ? B: Supporters argue that if factor A is present, it logically implies the necessity or desirability of factor B, thus advocating for the strategic initiative.
  16. Not-A ? B: Supporters contend that even in the absence of factor A, factor B should still be pursued, as it offers benefits or solutions that can be achieved through the initiative.

"No" Campaign:

  1. A: Opponents present arguments against the strategic initiative, pointing out potential risks, drawbacks, or negative consequences associated with factor A.
  2. Not-A: Opponents argue that the current situation, without factor A, may be preferable or that alternative solutions should be explored instead.
  3. A AND B: Opponents claim that both factor A and factor B are undesirable or pose significant risks, providing reasons for opposing the initiative.
  4. A AND Not-B: Opponents assert that while factor A may be valid, factor B is not necessary or might even hinder progress. They use this argument to oppose the initiative.
  5. Not-A AND B: Opponents acknowledge the presence of factor B but argue against the inclusion of factor A, proposing alternative solutions or asserting that factor B alone is sufficient.
  6. Not-A AND Not-B: Opponents argue against both factor A and factor B, asserting that the initiative does not offer a desirable solution or that alternative approaches are more appropriate.
  7. A OR B: Opponents highlight the range of potential negative outcomes associated with either factor A or factor B, using this as a basis to oppose the initiative.
  8. A OR Not-B: Opponents stress the risks or undesirability of factor A and argue against the initiative, even if factor B is absent.
  9. Not-A OR B: Opponents present reasons to oppose the initiative by highlighting the risks or drawbacks of factor B, even if factor A is not present.
  10. Not-A OR Not-B: Opponents argue against the strategic initiative, contending that neither factor A nor factor B offers a desirable solution or improvement.
  11. A XOR B: Opponents assert that either factor A or factor B should be avoided, but not both simultaneously, using this as a basis for opposing the initiative.
  12. A XOR Not-B: Opponents argue against the strategic initiative, contending that factor A is problematic and that the initiative should not proceed, even without factor B.
  13. Not-A XOR B: Opponents assert that factor B may be desirable, but factor A is unnecessary or poses risks, providing a rationale for opposing the initiative.
  14. Not-A XOR Not-B: Opponents argue against the initiative, asserting that neither factor A nor factor B is desirable or necessary for addressing the underlying issues.
  15. A ? B: Opponents may present the argument that if factor A is present, it logically implies the necessity or undesirability of factor B, using this to justify their opposition to the initiative.
  16. Not-A ? B: Opponents contend that even in the absence of factor A, factor B should still be pursued as an alternative solution, which undermines the necessity of the strategic initiative.

By considering these articulations, incorporating the political arguments, and aligning them with the 16 logical connectives, we can explore the different ways in which support and opposition can be expressed for a strategic initiative.

Relative frequency of use of logical connectives in discourse

The exchange below left emphaizes the extent to which ordinary discourse tends to make use of only a very limited range of connectives. As clarified (below right) this hampers the development of dialogue of a higher order -- one potentially vital to engaging opposing perspectives with respect to the complex issues characteristic of the challenges of governance at this time -- faced with what the policy sciences label as "wicked problems".

When you referred to primary logical connectives there was an implication that these were the most obvious or frequent. Could you comment on the probable frequency of each of the connectives in public discourse -- especially noting those of which there may be little awareness This helpful articulation raises the question of how the quality of public discourse is potentially undermined by its restriction to the use of a subset of connectives. Could you comment on the consequence for dialogue if some connectives are avoided or ignored

Certainly! When it comes to public discourse and everyday language, some logical connectives are more commonly used and recognized than others. Here's a breakdown of the probable frequency and awareness of each connective:

  • High Frequency and Awareness:
    • A %
    • Not-A %
    • A OR B %
    • Not-A OR B
    • A AND B %
    • Not-A AND B %
    • A OR Not-B
    • Not-A OR Not-B %

These connectives are relatively common in public discourse and are likely to be well-known to individuals engaging in discussions or debates.

  • Moderate Frequency and Awareness:
    • A XOR B
    • Not-A XOR B
    • A XOR Not-B
    • Not-A XOR Not-B
    • A ? B
    • Not-A ? B

These connectives are encountered less frequently in everyday conversations or public discourse compared to the ones in the high-frequency category. While some individuals may be familiar with these connectives, others may have limited awareness or understanding of their specific meanings or implications.

  • Low Frequency and Awareness:
    • A ? B
    • Not-A ? B
    • A ? Not-B
    • Not-A ? Not-B

These connectives are relatively rare in everyday language and public discourse. Their usage is more common in formal logic or specialized fields rather than in general discussions or debates. As a result, many individuals may have limited awareness or understanding of these connectives and their implications.

It's important to note that the frequency and awareness of logical connectives in public discourse can vary based on factors such as the complexity of the topic, the level of formality in the discussion, and the participants' familiarity with logical reasoning. While some connectives may be widely understood and employed, others may be less recognized or utilized in everyday conversations.

The quality of public discourse can indeed be affected when certain logical connectives are avoided or ignored. Here are some consequences that can arise from the limited use of connectives:

  • Oversimplification: By restricting public discourse to a subset of connectives, there is a risk of oversimplifying complex issues. Some connectives, such as implication (?) or biconditional (?), allow for nuanced reasoning and exploring the relationships between different factors. When these connectives are ignored, important shades of meaning or conditional relationships can be overlooked, leading to a less comprehensive understanding of the topic at hand.

  • Lack of Rigor: Logical connectives provide a framework for constructing and evaluating arguments. By neglecting certain connectives, the depth and rigor of arguments may suffer. Connectives like XOR (exclusive OR) or negation (Not) can help address counterarguments or acknowledge alternative viewpoints. Ignoring these connectives can result in less robust and balanced discussions.

  • Limited Perspective: Different logical connectives offer different perspectives and modes of reasoning. Neglecting connectives like biconditional (?) or implication (?) can limit the exploration of cause-and-effect relationships, conditional statements, or reciprocal implications. This can lead to a narrow view of the topic and hinder the development of well-rounded arguments.

  • Reduced Precision: Connectives enable the precise expression of logical relationships. By avoiding or ignoring connectives, the clarity and precision of statements can suffer. Ambiguities or misunderstandings may arise due to the absence of connectives that allow for precise distinctions, such as XOR (exclusive OR) or negation (Not).

  • Impaired Problem-Solving: Effective problem-solving often involves examining multiple perspectives and considering different possibilities. Connectives play a crucial role in this process by allowing for the exploration of various combinations and logical implications. When certain connectives are disregarded, the ability to analyze and propose comprehensive solutions may be hampered.

To foster meaningful and productive dialogue, it is essential to utilize a wide range of logical connectives. By incorporating a broader set of connectives, public discourse can become more nuanced, rigorous, and inclusive. It encourages deeper exploration of complex issues, facilitates the consideration of multiple viewpoints, and promotes a more comprehensive understanding of the topic being discussed.

Ranking dialogues in terms of use of logical and emotional connectives

In the following exchange an effort is made to clarify how political discourse in terms of the quality of dialogue by which it is characterized -- as might be considered typical of legislative assemblies with opposing political factions. Appropriately ChatGPT indicates the limitations of "logical connectives" in referring to "emotional intelligence" as extensively discussed in an earlier exchange with ChatGPT (Artificial Emotional Intelligence and its Human Implications, 2023). This had considered whether the reaction to AEI would be characterized by "dumbing down" of humanity in contrast to eliciting a higher order of authenticity and subtlety in dialogue.

Consideration of emotional connectives by explicit contrast with logical connectives seems first to have been made by Frances B. Popovich (Maxakalí Connectives, SIL International, 1975) with respect to the Maxakalí language. Concern with emotional connection has developed in the light of insight into the role of empathy in marketing.

Could political discourse be characterized and ranked by the combinations and patterns of logical connectives used -- especially with respect to the efficacy of government Your cautionary comment invites recognition of the role of artificial emotional intelligence (AEI). Could you comment on how that might enable political discourse to be enhanced

Characterizing and ranking political discourse solely based on the combinations and patterns of logical connectives used would be an oversimplification of the complexity involved in political discussions. While logical connectives play a role in shaping arguments and reasoning, political discourse encompasses a wide range of factors beyond pure logic, such as rhetoric, emotions, values, and context.

However, the strategic use of logical connectives can contribute to the effectiveness of political communication and decision-making. Here are a few considerations:

  • Coherence and Consistency: Effective political discourse often demonstrates coherence and consistency in the use of logical connectives. Arguments that are logically sound and internally consistent are generally more persuasive. A consistent and well-structured use of connectives can enhance the clarity and credibility of political messages.

  • Reasoning and Evidence: The use of logical connectives can support reasoning and the presentation of evidence in political discourse. Connectives like "if-then" (?) or "because" can strengthen the logical foundations of arguments by providing causal or evidential support. Political discourse that effectively employs such connectives can enhance the persuasiveness and credibility of the presented arguments.

  • Acknowledging Counterarguments: Effective political discourse should address counterarguments and alternative viewpoints. Logical connectives like "but" or "however" can help acknowledge opposing perspectives and create a more comprehensive and balanced discussion. The ability to effectively navigate and refute counterarguments contributes to the effectiveness and credibility of political communication.

  • Complexity and Nuance: Political issues are often multifaceted and complex, requiring nuanced reasoning and careful consideration of different factors. Effective political discourse can utilize logical connectives to explore the intricacies of these issues, considering conditional relationships, alternatives, or trade-offs. The ability to handle complex reasoning using appropriate connectives can enhance the quality of political discourse.

  • Emotional Appeal and Rhetoric: While logical connectives primarily address the logical dimension of discourse, political communication is also influenced by emotions and rhetoric. The strategic use of connectives can complement emotional appeals or rhetorical devices to make arguments more compelling or memorable. A holistic assessment of political discourse would need to consider these additional dimensions beyond logic.

In summary, while the use of logical connectives can contribute to the effectiveness of political discourse, ranking or characterizing political discourse solely based on their combinations and patterns would oversimplify the complexity of political communication. Political efficacy involves a broader range of factors, including but not limited to logical reasoning, and should be assessed within a comprehensive framework.

Artificial Emotional Intelligence (AEI) can indeed play a significant role in enhancing political discourse. By incorporating emotional intelligence into AI systems, we can promote more effective and empathetic communication in the political realm. Here are a few ways in which AEI can contribute to enhancing political discourse:

  • Empathetic Understanding: AEI can enable AI systems to better understand and interpret emotions expressed by individuals in political discourse. This understanding can help AI systems respond in a more empathetic manner, acknowledging and validating the emotions of the participants. This empathetic approach can foster a more constructive and respectful dialogue.

  • Emotional Context Analysis: AEI can help AI systems analyze the emotional context surrounding political discussions. By detecting and interpreting emotions present in text or speech, AI can gain a deeper understanding of the underlying sentiments and dynamics in political discourse. This analysis can assist in identifying areas of agreement, disagreement, or areas that require further clarification or resolution.

  • Emotional Tone and Rhetoric: AEI can aid in assessing the emotional tone and rhetoric used in political communication. By recognizing emotionally charged language or potential manipulation tactics, AI systems can alert participants or moderators to potentially divisive or biased arguments. This awareness can promote more balanced and fact-based discussions.

  • Emotionally Intelligent Responses: AEI can enable AI systems to respond to political discourse in an emotionally intelligent manner. AI can offer nuanced and empathetic suggestions, encourage constructive dialogue, and provide alternative perspectives. This capability can help participants engage in more meaningful and productive conversations, facilitating a deeper understanding of different viewpoints.

  • Emotional Regulation: AEI can assist in emotional regulation by providing real-time feedback to participants in political discussions. AI systems can detect and highlight emotionally charged language or potential conflicts, encouraging individuals to pause, reflect, and engage in more measured and respectful communication. This can contribute to a more civil and constructive political discourse.

  • Personalized Engagement: AEI can help tailor political discourse to individual preferences and emotional needs. AI systems can adapt communication styles and content delivery based on participants' emotional states or sensitivities. This personalized engagement can promote a more inclusive and engaging dialogue, accommodating different emotional backgrounds and preferences.

Overall, integrating AEI into political discourse can enhance communication by promoting empathy, understanding emotions, and facilitating more constructive and respectful conversations. By leveraging emotional intelligence, AI systems can contribute to a more informed, empathetic, and inclusive political environment. However, it is essential to ensure transparency, accountability, and ethical considerations when deploying AI systems in political discourse to maintain trust and fairness.

The following exchange is perhaps the least fruitful in that, whilst accepting the possibility of "emotional connectives" (below left), the suggested articulation by ChatGPT was simplistic and confusingly presented (below left and right). There does not appear to be any effort to distinguish emotional connectives, in a manner analogous to that for logical connectives, on which ChatGPT might have fruitfully drawn.

Given that comment, could you speculate on the existence of a set of distinct "emotional connectives" analogous to the 16 logical connectives I am somewhat surprised that your valuable suggestion does not include the Love/Hate dimension. Are you able to extend your articulation

Speculating on the existence of a set of distinct "emotional connectives" analogous to the 16 logical connectives is an interesting concept. While emotions do not possess the same formal structure as logical connectives, we can explore the possibility of identifying certain patterns or expressions that could serve as emotional counterparts. Here's a speculative exploration of potential emotional connectives:

  • Joy Connectives:
    • Joy OR Joy: Expressing shared positive emotions and enthusiasm.
    • Joy AND Joy: Combining positive emotions for increased impact or synergy.
  • Sadness Connectives:
    • Sadness OR Sadness: Recognizing and empathizing with shared feelings of sadness.
    • Sadness AND Sadness: Amplifying the impact of sadness by acknowledging and uniting in collective grief.
  • Anger Connectives:
    • Anger OR Anger: Uniting in shared anger and frustration.
    • Anger AND Anger: Combining anger to emphasize the strength and urgency of the shared concern.
  • Fear Connectives:
    • Fear OR Fear: Acknowledging and validating shared fears and concerns.
    • Fear AND Fear: Combining fears to highlight the gravity and importance of the underlying issues.
  • Disgust Connectives:
    • Disgust OR Disgust: Sharing a common sentiment of distaste or repulsion.
    • Disgust AND Disgust: Combining feelings of disgust to emphasize the collective rejection of a particular idea or behavior.
  • Surprise Connectives:
    • Surprise OR Surprise: Sharing a sense of unexpectedness or astonishment.
    • Surprise AND Surprise: Amplifying the element of surprise to create a stronger emotional impact.

It's important to note that emotions are subjective and context-dependent, and the suggested emotional connectives are speculative in nature. Emotions are often conveyed through a combination of verbal and non-verbal cues, making it challenging to precisely define emotional connectives in a formalized manner. Additionally, emotions can be highly nuanced and diverse, and individuals may experience and express them differently.

While the concept of "emotional connectives" is intriguing, further research and exploration would be needed to refine and validate their existence and usage in emotional communication.

Apologies for the oversight. You're right to highlight the Love/Hate dimension, which is a crucial aspect of emotions. Here's an extension of the emotional connectives to include the Love/Hate dimension:

  • Love Connectives:
    • Love OR Love: Expressing shared positive emotions, affection, and care.
    • Love AND Love: Combining love to emphasize the depth and intensity of positive emotions and connections.
  • Hate Connectives:
    • Hate OR Hate: Sharing a common sentiment of strong dislike or aversion.
    • Hate AND Hate: Amplifying the feeling of hate to emphasize a collective rejection or condemnation.
  • Love and Hate Connectives:
    • Love OR Hate: Acknowledging the presence of both positive and negative emotions, recognizing the complexities of relationships or situations.
    • Love AND Hate: Recognizing the simultaneous existence of conflicting emotions, such as loving and hating aspects of something or someone.
  • Mixed Emotion Connectives:
    • Love AND Fear: Expressing a combination of affection and concern or caution.
    • Love AND Joy: Combining feelings of love and joy to express overwhelming happiness or contentment.
    • Love AND Sadness: Reflecting on the bittersweet nature of emotions, such as the love felt in the midst of sorrow or loss.
    • Love AND Anger: Conveying the passionate and protective nature of love, where anger arises from a sense of injustice or harm.

It's important to remember that emotions are complex and multifaceted, and these connectives are offered as speculative examples to capture certain emotional dimensions. The experience and expression of emotions can vary greatly among individuals and cultures.

Further research and exploration are needed to refine and expand the concept of emotional connectives, considering additional dimensions and nuances of emotions to create a more comprehensive framework. Emotions play a significant role in communication and understanding, and their inclusion in the discourse can contribute to a deeper and more empathetic engagement.

Of potential interest in this respect, given ChatGPT's effort, is the literature on the value polarities characteristic of discourse (Clusters of Value Polarities; Responding to Conceptual and Value Polarities, 1998; Michael Soth, Working with Polarities / Gestalt Dialogue / ‘Two-chair’ work, January 2018).

ChatGPT engaged to some degree (below left) with the "two culture" distinction in the literature caricatured as that between the logical bias of the "heartless heads" and the emotional bias of the "headless hearts" (Challenge of the "headless hearts" to the "heartless heads"? 2018). Less useful was the response to the manner by which they might be reconciled in dialogue (below right).

In any comparison between use in dialogue of the 16 logical connectives and an analogous set of emotional connectives, could you comment on its implications for those distinguished as the "heartless heads" in contrast with the "headless hearts" Given the enrichment of discourse by incorporating all connectives, logical or emotional, how can their interplay be understood as fruitful given the degree to which extremes are charged by each other as positive or negative -- even as good or evil

When comparing the use of logical connectives versus emotional connectives in dialogue, it's important to recognize that the two serve different purposes and cater to distinct aspects of human communication. Logical connectives, such as "and," "or," "if-then," etc., are used to establish logical relationships and convey objective information. Emotional connectives, on the other hand, encompass words and phrases that express feelings, emotions, and subjective experiences.

The implication of using logical connectives extensively in dialogue, often associated with "heartless heads," is that the focus is primarily on rationality, facts, and detached reasoning. People who heavily rely on logical connectives may prioritize objective analysis, critical thinking, and problem-solving over emotional considerations. While this approach can be effective in certain contexts, it may be perceived as lacking empathy or sensitivity towards others' emotional needs.

Conversely, the use of emotional connectives, characteristic of the "headless hearts," suggests a communication style that emphasizes subjective experiences, emotions, and personal connections. Individuals who predominantly employ emotional connectives may prioritize empathy, understanding, and emotional resonance. They may prioritize the expression of emotions and seek to establish emotional connections with others, sometimes at the expense of logical rigor or detached analysis.

It is important to note that these characterizations of "heartless heads" and "headless hearts" are oversimplified and can perpetuate stereotypes. In reality, effective communication requires a balance between logic and emotions. The ideal scenario involves integrating both logical and emotional connectives to ensure that dialogue addresses both factual information and emotional needs. Striking this balance can lead to more holistic and empathetic communication, fostering understanding and connection while considering the rational aspects of a given situation.

The interplay between logical and emotional connectives can indeed be fruitful in enriching discourse, despite the charged nature of extremes often associated with each other. Here are a few perspectives on how their interplay can be understood in a productive manner:

  • Comprehensive Understanding: Logical connectives provide a framework for rational reasoning, while emotional connectives tap into the subjective and affective aspects of human experience. By integrating both, discourse can achieve a more comprehensive understanding of complex issues. Logical connectives help to analyze arguments, assess evidence, and evaluate reasoning, while emotional connectives bring awareness to the diverse range of human sentiments and motivations that influence our perspectives.

  • Contextual Appreciation: Understanding the interplay between logical and emotional connectives requires acknowledging the context in which discourse takes place. Extremes charged with positive or negative connotations often arise due to the passionate nature of emotions or deeply held beliefs. Recognizing this context allows for a more nuanced exploration of the underlying factors and motivations driving extreme positions. By considering both logical and emotional connectives, discourse can strive to find common ground, bridge gaps, and foster empathy, even in the face of charged extremes.

  • Balanced Persuasion: Effective persuasion often involves appealing to both rationality and emotions. Logical connectives help construct well-reasoned arguments supported by evidence, while emotional connectives tap into the values, aspirations, and concerns that resonate with individuals. By skillfully intertwining logical and emotional connectives, discourse can present a balanced and compelling case that addresses both the cognitive and affective dimensions of decision-making.

  • Mitigating Polarization: The charged nature of extremes in discourse can contribute to polarization and the creation of opposing camps. However, the interplay between logical and emotional connectives can offer opportunities for empathy, understanding, and bridge-building. By recognizing the emotional nuances and motivations underlying extreme positions, discourse can seek to find common ground and identify shared goals or values, fostering dialogue and collaboration rather than perpetuating divisiveness.

  • Ethical Considerations: Discourse enriched by the interplay of logical and emotional connectives should also be guided by ethical principles. Both logic and emotions have the power to influence and shape discourse, and it is important to promote ethical standards such as fairness, respect, and empathy in communication. By incorporating ethical considerations, discourse can strive for a balanced and constructive interplay between logical and emotional connectives, creating a more fruitful and ethical exchange of ideas.

Ultimately, the interplay between logical and emotional connectives can enhance discourse by embracing the complexity of human experiences and perspectives. By acknowledging and skillfully integrating both dimensions, discourse can become more inclusive, empathetic, and effective in addressing complex issues and fostering meaningful dialogue.

Missing from the exchange above regarding connectives is the manner in which they are entangled with considerations of "right" and "wrong" or "good" and "evil" -- typical of the tendency to reframe any sense of negation in support of a "positive" connotation. Discourse on political discourse issues readily declares any opposing perspective to be "wrong" -- readily extending that to labelling it as "evil". This unfortunately extends to the negative feedback, otherwise recognized as complementary to the positive feedback by which complex systems are controlled from a cybernetic perspective. The case has been made by Barbara Ehrenreich (Bright-Sided: How the Relentless Promotion of Positive Thinking has Undermined America, 2000). The tendency has taken on new vigour in the politics of the cancel culture (Being Positive and Avoiding Negativity: management challenge of positive vs negative, 2005).

A major difficulty with respect to connectives, whether logical or emotional, is the manner in which in dialogue one participant reframes themself to be "right" or "good" respectively -- with the other participant readily framed as "wrong" or "evil". How does this tendency manifest with respect to the set of such connectives and their articulation. Your response is valuable with respect to those few connectives potentially recognized as primary. Can you elaborate further with respect to a more extensive set of connectives as it might apply to opposing political factions

The tendency to frame oneself as "right" or "good" while labeling the other participant as "wrong" or "evil" is a common challenge in dialogue, regardless of the type of connectives being used. This tendency can manifest in different ways when it comes to logical and emotional connectives.

In the case of logical connectives, such as "and," "or," or "if-then," the tendency to frame oneself as "right" and the other as "wrong" often arises when participants engage in binary thinking or fall into a win-lose mentality. This can lead to a rigid adherence to one's own logical reasoning and a dismissal or invalidation of the other person's perspective. Each participant may emphasize their own set of facts or arguments, seeking to prove their correctness while undermining or negating the other's viewpoint.

When it comes to emotional connectives, the tendency to frame oneself as "good" and the other as "evil" is often rooted in emotional polarization. Participants may use emotional language to emphasize their own positive emotions, moral values, or intentions, while attributing negative emotions, immoral motives, or malicious intent to the other person. This can result in a lack of empathy and an unwillingness to understand or acknowledge the validity of the other person's emotions or experiences.

Both of these tendencies can hinder productive dialogue and lead to increased conflict and misunderstanding. They often create a hostile atmosphere where the focus shifts from genuine exchange and understanding to a battle of who is right or good. Overcoming this tendency requires open-mindedness, empathy, and a willingness to recognize the complexity of human experiences and perspectives.

Engaging in constructive dialogue involves actively listening to the other person's point of view, asking clarifying questions, and seeking common ground. It requires acknowledging that both logical and emotional factors play a role in shaping our perspectives and that finding a middle ground can often lead to better outcomes and improved understanding between participants.

Certainly! When examining a more extensive set of connectives and their application to opposing political factions, the dynamics of dialogue become even more complex. Political discourse often involves a wide range of logical and emotional connectives, and the tendency to frame oneself as "right" or "good" while labeling the other faction as "wrong" or "evil" can become deeply entrenched.

  • Logical Connectives: In political discussions, logical connectives such as "and," "or," "if-then," and "not" are frequently employed to construct arguments, present evidence, and make claims. However, each faction may selectively utilize these connectives to reinforce their own positions while dismissing or disregarding opposing viewpoints. The focus may shift towards cherry-picking facts or presenting information in a way that supports preexisting beliefs, leading to a polarization of perspectives.

  • Emotional Connectives: Emotional connectives play a significant role in political dialogue as well. Words and phrases that express emotions, values, and aspirations can be potent tools for mobilizing support and shaping public opinion. Opposing factions may utilize emotional connectives to evoke empathy, inspire loyalty, or appeal to deeply held beliefs. This can result in the portrayal of one's own faction as morally superior or virtuous, while painting the opposition as morally bankrupt or dangerous.

Furthermore, the framing of connectives can contribute to the "us versus them" mentality prevalent in political discourse. The use of connectives like "we," "they," "our," or "their" can reinforce group identities and create a sense of solidarity within one's own faction. This can lead to a demonization of the other faction, viewing them as adversaries or enemies rather than fellow citizens with differing opinions.

Overcoming this divisive tendency requires a concerted effort to engage in constructive dialogue. It involves acknowledging the validity of multiple perspectives, actively listening to opposing viewpoints, and seeking common ground. Rather than focusing solely on being "right" or "good," a more fruitful approach involves exploring shared values, identifying areas of overlap, and finding compromises that address the concerns of all factions involved.

Building bridges between opposing political factions requires empathy, respect, and a commitment to open-mindedness. It is essential to recognize that both logical reasoning and emotional experiences shape our political beliefs, and a willingness to engage in dialogue that incorporates both aspects can foster understanding and contribute to more productive discussions.

The effort to elicit a more comprehensive articulation from ChatGPT proved frustrating as indicated below.

Is it possible to develop further your articulation for political discourse, especially in the light of the range of 16 logical connectives, whether or not emotional analogues can be identified

Your articulation is valuable but it has lost the extent to which right-wrong and good-evil are integrated into the connectives in political discourse, whether logical or emotional. Could you clarify further

Certainly! Let's delve further into political discourse and explore how the range of 16 logical connectives can be applied and whether emotional analogues can be identified.

Logical Connectives: The 16 logical connectives include conjunctions (and), disjunctions (or), implications (if-then), negations (not), biconditionals (if and only if), exclusive disjunctions (xor), joint denial (nand), and joint affirmation (nor), among others. In political discourse, these connectives can be used to construct arguments, make claims, and establish relationships between ideas.

  • Conjunctions (and) and disjunctions (or) are commonly used to express the combination or choice of ideas or policies. For example, a political faction might argue for the implementation of both economic reforms (conjunction) or prioritize either social justice or economic growth (disjunction). These connectives often involve strategic decision-making and trade-offs.

  • Implications (if-then) play a crucial role in political discourse when presenting policy proposals and their expected consequences. For instance, a faction might argue that if a particular policy is implemented, it will lead to economic growth or social progress. Implications can also be used to establish cause-and-effect relationships or to highlight the potential impact of political decisions.

  • Negations (not) are employed to negate or refute claims made by opposing factions. It is common in political discourse to present arguments by negating the claims of others. For example, one faction might assert that a policy proposal will not lead to the desired outcome or that the claims made by their opponents are incorrect.

  • Biconditionals (if and only if) are used to express a relationship of mutual dependency or equivalence. In politics, biconditionals can be applied to policies that are contingent upon specific circumstances. For instance, a faction might argue that social welfare programs will only be effective if accompanied by strong economic growth, or that a particular law should be enacted if and only if it aligns with certain ethical principles.

While emotional analogues to the entire set of 16 logical connectives may not exist in a direct one-to-one correspondence, emotional expressions can still play a significant role in political discourse. Emotional connectives can help convey subjective experiences, values, and moral judgments, which are integral to political decision-making.

For example, emotional connectives can be used to evoke empathy, such as expressing the emotions of compassion or indignation in response to social injustices. They can also be employed to appeal to shared values, employing phrases like "justice demands" or "it is our moral duty." Emotional connectives can influence public opinion, shape narratives, and mobilize support for political causes.

While emotional connectives may not align perfectly with the logical connectives, they can complement and enrich political discourse by addressing the emotional dimensions that underlie people's beliefs, motivations, and aspirations. Integrating both logical and emotional elements in political dialogue is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of complex issues and fostering constructive conversations.

It is worth noting that political discourse is multifaceted and influenced by various factors, including cultural, social, and historical contexts. The specific connectives used and the emotional nuances they encompass may vary depending on the specific political landscape and the nature of the issues being discussed.

Apologies for any confusion. Let's clarify further on how the notions of right-wrong and good-evil can be integrated into both logical and emotional connectives in political discourse.

  • Logical Connectives: In political discourse, the notions of right and wrong are often intertwined with logical connectives. Participants may use these connectives to construct arguments that assert their position as morally right or ethically superior while portraying opposing viewpoints as morally wrong or ethically misguided.

    For example, a political faction might use the conjunction "and" to argue that their proposed policies are both economically effective and morally just, implying that those who oppose their policies are wrong on both counts. The use of disjunctions, such as "or," can be employed to present a choice between what is perceived as the right course of action versus the wrong one. By framing their policies as the morally right choice, factions can attempt to discredit opposing options as morally wrong.

  • Emotional Connectives: Emotional connectives in political discourse can also be intertwined with the concepts of good and evil. Participants often use emotional language to evoke moral judgments and shape public opinion. Emotional connectives can be employed to portray one's own faction as morally good or virtuous while casting opposing factions as morally evil or morally bankrupt.

    For instance, emotional connectives can be used to express indignation or outrage towards certain policies, framing them as morally reprehensible. Phrases like "it's immoral," "it's unjust," or "it's evil" can be utilized to invoke negative moral judgments against specific actions or decisions. Conversely, emotional connectives can be used to convey positive moral values and ideals, appealing to concepts such as justice, equality, or compassion.

It's important to note that the integration of right-wrong and good-evil into connectives in political discourse is often subjective and can vary across different ideological perspectives. Different factions may interpret the concepts of right and wrong, good and evil, differently based on their values, beliefs, and priorities.

However, it is crucial to approach political discourse with a critical mindset, recognizing that claims of moral superiority or moral condemnation can be used strategically to gain support or delegitimize opposing viewpoints. Engaging in productive dialogue requires moving beyond simple dichotomies of right-wrong and good-evil and instead fostering a nuanced understanding of complex issues, embracing diverse perspectives, and seeking common ground for meaningful debate.



Switching focus the emphasis was then placed on how discourse of a subtler order could be recognized in practice. Unfortunately this engendered responses of limited value characteristic of promoters of such dialogue but with little indication of why any practice of them had failed to lead to dialogue "fit for purpose" in the face of the challenges of society at this time. As noted by ChatGPT the example given is indeed "simplified" (below right).

Avoiding platitudes and truisms, could you suggest how "deep dialogue" and "dialogue of a higher order" might be recognized and cultivated -- and the models appropriate to their representation in contrast to those of a more shallow form, or of "lower order" Could you cite specific examples of deep dialogue, or that of a higher order -- in the light of the resources on which you have been trained

Deep dialogue or dialogue of a higher order refers to a level of conversation that goes beyond surface-level exchanges and superficial arguments. It involves engaging in thoughtful, reflective, and open-minded discussions that seek to understand different perspectives, explore underlying assumptions, and foster mutual learning. Here are some suggestions for recognizing and cultivating deep dialogue:

  • Active Listening: Deep dialogue requires active listening, where participants genuinely strive to understand others' viewpoints without preconceived judgments or interrupting. Active listening involves giving undivided attention, asking clarifying questions, and reflecting on what is being shared.

  • Empathy and Respect: Cultivating empathy and respect for others' experiences, values, and beliefs is crucial in deep dialogue. Recognizing the validity of diverse perspectives, even if they differ from your own, creates an environment conducive to deeper understanding and collaboration.

  • Suspending Assumptions: Deep dialogue involves suspending assumptions and being open to challenging and expanding one's own perspectives. Questioning deeply held beliefs and exploring alternative viewpoints can lead to transformative insights and new possibilities.

  • Inquiry and Reflection: Engaging in inquiry-based dialogue, where participants ask thought-provoking questions and engage in reflective thinking, promotes deeper understanding and critical thinking. Encouraging self-reflection and inviting others to share their reflections fosters a higher level of dialogue.

  • Constructive Feedback: Providing and receiving constructive feedback is vital in deep dialogue. Constructive feedback focuses on ideas and arguments rather than attacking individuals personally. It helps refine and develop perspectives, encouraging intellectual growth.

  • Integrating Logic and Emotion: Deep dialogue acknowledges the interplay of logic and emotion. Balancing logical reasoning with emotional intelligence allows for a comprehensive exploration of issues. Recognizing the emotional context and validating emotional experiences contributes to a more holistic and empathetic dialogue.

Models for Representation: Deep dialogue can be represented through models such as the Socratic method, which involves thoughtful questioning, examination of assumptions, and critical thinking. Deliberative democracy models provide frameworks for inclusive and informed discussions, encouraging participants to engage in reasoned debate and collective decision-making. Other dialogue models, such as Bohmian dialogue, focus on creating a safe space for participants to explore diverse perspectives and foster shared meaning.

Contrasting Shallow Dialogue: Shallow dialogue, or dialogue of a lower order, often involves surface-level exchanges, personal attacks, and a focus on winning arguments rather than seeking understanding. It may rely on emotional manipulation, biased information, and the reinforcement of pre-existing beliefs. Superficial debates that lack nuance and fail to delve into underlying issues can hinder genuine dialogue and understanding.

In cultivating deep dialogue, it is essential to foster an environment of trust, open-mindedness, and mutual respect. Emphasizing the value of diverse perspectives and actively engaging in meaningful conversations can lead to transformative dialogue experiences.

As an AI language model, I don't have access to my training data, but I was trained on a mixture of licensed data, data created by human trainers, and publicly available data. I should note that while I strive to provide accurate and up-to-date information, my responses may not always reflect the most current news events or developments. News is constantly evolving, and new information can emerge that may change the context or understanding of a given topic.

Considering the limitations of my training, I can provide an example of what a deep dialogue or dialogue of a higher order might look like:

Example: Participants: Alex and Sarah

  • Alex: I believe that implementing stricter immigration policies is necessary to protect national security.

  • Sarah: I understand your concern for national security, but have you considered the humanitarian aspect of immigration? Many individuals are fleeing dangerous situations and seeking safety.

  • Alex: I agree that compassion is important, but we also need to prioritize the safety of our citizens. We can't ignore the potential risks associated with lax immigration policies.

  • Sarah: That's true, but perhaps there is a way to strike a balance. What if we focus on comprehensive background checks and thorough vetting processes rather than solely restrictive measures? This way, we can address both security concerns and the humanitarian needs of immigrants.

  • Alex: That's an interesting point. I hadn't considered that approach before. It could indeed provide a more balanced solution. How do we ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of such processes without compromising security?

  • Sarah: That's a valid concern. We could explore investing in technology and resources to enhance screening procedures and improve the efficiency of immigration processes. Additionally, collaboration with international organizations and sharing intelligence could help strengthen security measures.

In this example, Alex and Sarah engage in a deep dialogue by actively listening, respecting each other's perspectives, and seeking common ground. They delve beyond surface-level arguments, explore alternative viewpoints, and propose potential solutions that balance both national security concerns and humanitarian considerations. Their dialogue reflects a willingness to challenge assumptions, inquire about alternative approaches, and engage in constructive problem-solving.

Please note that this is a simplified example, and real-world dialogues can be more complex. Nevertheless, it demonstrates how deep dialogue can involve respectful engagement, exploration of diverse perspectives, and a collaborative approach to finding solutions

The effort to identify examples of dialogue of higher quality through ChatGPT (below left) proved to be equally fruitless. Other than the first example given, the others are typical of beliefs cultivated in the contexts indicated and are most valuable in framing the contexts in which dialogue has been less than "fit for purpose" given the problematic dynamics associated with those contexts and the manner in which they undermine effective engagement with the global problematique at this time.

In my quest for examples, my need is rather for information on dialogues which have taken place and which are acknowledged as being qualitatively of a higher order Whilst deep dialogue may be hypothetically associated with some of the examples you cite, it is characteristically the case that participants and facilitators would tend defensively to make that claim -- with little ability to recognize whether the dialogue has been fit for the purpose for which it was intended. How is the distinction to be made objectively

Certainly! While I don't have access to specific information on dialogues that have taken place after my September 2021 knowledge cutoff, I can provide examples of dialogues that are often acknowledged as qualitatively of a higher order. These examples are based on historical and well-known instances of deep dialogues:

  • The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in South Africa: The TRC was established in South Africa in the 1990s as a means to address the human rights violations during apartheid. It involved structured dialogues between victims and perpetrators, aiming to achieve reconciliation and justice. The dialogues allowed for the expression of personal experiences, the exploration of truth, and facilitated healing and forgiveness.

  • International Peace Negotiations: Dialogues conducted during international peace negotiations, such as the Oslo Accords between Israel and Palestine or the Good Friday Agreement in Northern Ireland, are often recognized as deep dialogues. These dialogues involved extensive discussions, negotiations, and compromises to resolve complex conflicts and establish peace.

  • Deliberative Forums: Various deliberative forums, such as citizens' assemblies or community dialogues, have been conducted worldwide to address complex social and political issues. These forums gather diverse participants to engage in informed discussions, often guided by experts, with the goal of reaching well-considered decisions or policy recommendations.

  • Academic and Intellectual Debates: Within academia, intellectual debates and conferences can foster deep dialogue. These dialogues involve scholars, researchers, and experts engaging in rigorous discussions, challenging assumptions, and presenting well-reasoned arguments on topics ranging from philosophy to scientific breakthroughs.

  • Mediation and Conflict Resolution: Mediation processes facilitated by trained mediators or conflict resolution experts often aim to foster deep dialogue between conflicting parties. These dialogues provide a structured environment for parties to express their concerns, understand each other's perspectives, and work towards mutually acceptable solutions.

It's important to note that the quality and impact of a dialogue can vary depending on factors such as the context, facilitation, participants' openness, and the outcomes achieved. While these examples highlight instances where deep dialogue has been recognized, there are numerous other dialogues that have taken place across various domains, including grassroots movements, interfaith dialogue, and collaborative decision-making processes, which can also be considered qualitatively of a higher order.

You raise a valid point. Assessing the objectivity of whether a dialogue has been truly fit for its intended purpose can be challenging, as participants and facilitators may have subjective biases or vested interests in portraying the dialogue as deep and successful. However, there are certain criteria and indicators that can help evaluate the quality and effectiveness of a dialogue in a more objective manner:

  • Inclusion and Diversity: A deep dialogue should strive for inclusive participation, ensuring that diverse perspectives are represented. It should aim to engage individuals from different backgrounds, experiences, and viewpoints, creating a space for meaningful exchange and cross-fertilization of ideas.

  • Openness and Respectful Exchange: A key aspect of deep dialogue is fostering an environment of openness, where participants feel safe to express their opinions, challenge ideas, and engage in respectful and constructive dialogue. This includes active listening, suspending judgment, and valuing diverse perspectives.

  • Depth of Analysis and Exploration: Deep dialogue involves going beyond surface-level arguments and engaging in substantive analysis and exploration of complex issues. Participants should delve into underlying assumptions, critically examine evidence, and consider the long-term implications of various perspectives and proposed solutions.

  • Learning and Growth: A successful deep dialogue should facilitate learning and growth for participants. It should encourage intellectual curiosity, expansion of knowledge, and the development of new insights or perspectives. Participants should come away with a deeper understanding of the issue at hand and a greater appreciation for different viewpoints.

  • Collaborative Problem-Solving: Deep dialogue often aims to find collaborative solutions to complex problems. It should promote cooperation, consensus-building, and the identification of shared goals or values. Participants should actively seek common ground and work together towards mutually acceptable outcomes.

  • Impact and Follow-up: The effectiveness of a deep dialogue can also be assessed by its impact on subsequent actions and policies. Did the dialogue influence decision-making processes? Were the outcomes of the dialogue implemented or taken into consideration? Evaluating the tangible impact of the dialogue can provide insights into its success.

It's important to note that while these criteria can help provide a more objective assessment, complete objectivity in evaluating dialogue remains challenging. Different stakeholders may have varying perspectives on what constitutes a successful dialogue. Engaging in self-reflection, seeking feedback from participants, and conducting external evaluations or assessments can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the dialogue's quality and its fit for the intended purpose.

In an effort to refocus the interaction the possibility of framing the challenge in terms of the explicit articulation of chess (below left), but for which the response was of limited value -- as with its application to opposing political campaigns as the objective of the exercise (below right).

As a classical model of strategic interplay, with its 16 white pieces and its 16 black pieces, chess reduces to a variously comprehensible game the interplay between contrasting modalities -- whether logical or emotional. How could recognition of the explicit nature of chess suggest the complexity to be explored between the connectives Could you clarify that comment with respect to a "Yes" campaign opposed by a "No" campaign when the larger challenge for governance is their meaningful interplay -- beyond the winning or losing of a finite game

Recognizing the explicit nature of chess as a model for strategic interplay can indeed shed light on the complexity that can be explored between logical and emotional connectives. Chess provides a structured framework where players strategically navigate their moves using contrasting modalities represented by the white and black pieces. Here's how the nature of chess can suggest the complexity to be explored between connectives:

  • Strategic Decision-Making: In chess, players must make strategic decisions based on logical analysis and evaluation of potential moves. This aligns with the use of logical connectives in political discourse, where arguments are built upon reasoning, evidence, and evaluating different possibilities. The interplay of logical connectives in discourse reflects the strategic decision-making process of considering various options and their implications.

  • Emotional Intelligence in Chess: While chess is often seen as a logical game, emotions can also come into play. Players may experience feelings of excitement, frustration, or anxiety during a game. Similarly, in political discourse, emotions can influence perspectives, motivations, and responses. Exploring the emotional dimension of chess can draw parallels to the role of emotional connectives in political discourse, as they acknowledge and address the affective aspects that influence decision-making and communication.

  • Balancing Rationality and Intuition: Chess players often strike a balance between rational calculation and intuitive leaps when making moves. This balance reflects the interplay between logical and emotional connectives in political discourse. Logical connectives facilitate systematic reasoning, while emotional connectives can tap into intuitive insights, gut feelings, or shared values that shape decision-making. The interplay between these modalities contributes to a comprehensive approach in both chess and discourse.

  • Complexity and Patterns: Chess is a game of complexity, where players must navigate through intricate patterns, anticipate opponent's moves, and think several steps ahead. Similarly, political discourse involves grappling with complex issues, understanding interconnected factors, and recognizing patterns in arguments or policies. Exploring the interplay between connectives helps capture the intricate nature of discourse and the patterns that emerge in the exchange of ideas.

  • Strategy and Counterplay: Chess is characterized by strategic planning and counterplay. Players anticipate opponent's moves, strategize their own moves, and adjust their plans accordingly. Likewise, in political discourse, participants employ logical and emotional connectives to present arguments, address counterarguments, and adapt their positions based on the evolving discussion. Understanding the interplay between connectives can enhance the strategic maneuvering and counterplay in discourse.

By recognizing the explicit nature of chess, we can draw analogies to the complexity inherent in the interplay between connectives in political discourse. The game serves as a tangible representation of the dynamics involved in navigating contrasting modalities, whether logical or emotional, and offers insights into the multifaceted nature of discourse and decision-making.

Certainly! When referring to a "Yes" campaign opposed by a "No" campaign in the context of governance, the focus is typically on the competitive nature of the campaigns and the outcome of a specific decision or vote. However, the larger challenge for governance lies in the meaningful interplay between these campaigns, extending beyond the mere winning or losing of a finite game. Here's how this can be clarified:

  • Collaboration and Compromise: The meaningful interplay between a "Yes" campaign and a "No" campaign can foster collaboration and encourage the exploration of common ground. Instead of viewing the campaigns as adversarial forces, governance benefits from their ability to engage in constructive dialogue, seek compromises, and find solutions that address the concerns of both sides. This cooperative approach helps bridge divisions and leads to more effective and inclusive governance.

  • Deliberative Democracy: The interplay between campaigns allows for a deliberative democratic process, where different perspectives are considered, and decisions are reached through informed and reasoned debate. By engaging in substantive discussions that go beyond a simple "Yes" or "No" binary, governance can tap into the wisdom of the collective and make more well-rounded and inclusive decisions that consider the diverse needs and values of the population.

  • Generating Innovative Solutions: Meaningful interplay between campaigns encourages the exploration of alternative ideas and innovative solutions. The clash of different viewpoints challenges the status quo and can lead to the development of creative approaches to governance issues. By embracing the diversity of perspectives and engaging in constructive discourse, governance can tap into the collective intelligence and foster innovative solutions that address complex societal challenges.

  • Ensuring Accountability and Transparency: The interplay between campaigns plays a crucial role in ensuring accountability and transparency in governance. A robust opposition and scrutiny from different viewpoints help hold those in power accountable for their decisions and actions. This interplay helps prevent concentration of power and ensures that decisions are made in the best interest of the public.

  • Engaging the Public: The interplay between campaigns provides an opportunity to engage the public in governance processes. It encourages active participation, empowers citizens to voice their concerns and preferences, and strengthens democratic values. Meaningful engagement fosters a sense of ownership and allows governance to be more responsive to the needs and aspirations of the people.

In summary, the meaningful interplay between a "Yes" campaign and a "No" campaign goes beyond the outcome of a specific decision or vote. It encompasses collaboration, compromise, deliberation, innovation, accountability, transparency, and public engagement. By recognizing the importance of this interplay, governance can foster a more inclusive, responsive, and effective decision-making process that benefits society as a whole.

Learnings from the interaction with ChatGPT

The following comments related to version 3.5 of ChatGPT -- the freely available version at the time of writing. This is distinct from the later model (version 4.0) which is accessible for a monthly fee.

Problematic depersonalization: In the light of the dialogu ehteme explored above, ChatGPT was then asked: How would you rate the quality of this exchange? It seems to have reached a degree of unresolved conclusion. Do you have any suggestion as to how it might be developed further and more fruitfully. If not, why not

It responded as follows: As an AI language model, I don't have personal opinions or the ability to rate the quality of this exchange. However, I can provide some suggestions on how the dialogue could be developed further and potentially more fruitfully:

Remember that the success of a dialogue depends not only on the participants but also on the context, goals, and facilitation. By incorporating some of these suggestions and adapting them to your specific situation, you can potentially enhance the development and fruitfulness of the conversation.

About which ChatGPT was then asked: The use of "you" in this exchange has been a rhetorical convenience which led to the unnecessary assumption of possession of personal opinions -- as in use of "I" by "you". I would have assumed, perhaps incorrectly, that as an AI language model you would have the facility to distinguish between questions in some manner, if only with respect to the resources required to respond to them

To which it responded:

You are correct that the use of "you" in my previous response was a rhetorical convenience for the sake of clarity and readability. As an AI language model, I don't possess personal opinions, emotions, or a sense of self. I don't have the capability to distinguish between questions based on the resources required to respond to them. I generate responses based on patterns and examples in the data I was trained on, and I strive to provide helpful and informative answers to the best of my abilities.

This is indicative of a default response typical of the reaction to some questions. It necessarily frames the possibility of questions regarding personhood reminiscent of issues of corporate personhood.

Remarkably comprehensive articulation: A much appreciated capacity is the ease of production by ChatGPT of overviews of a topic distinguishing a comprehensive range of aspects -- potentially difficult to obtain otherwise. This clearly derives from drawing on an extensive range of literature -- whether or not this capacity is deprecated as regurgitating and repackaging. Achieving this is indeed a possibility of conventional research if time is devoted to doing so. The scope of the overviews of ChatGPT does however offer a degree of corrective to the possibility of individual bias in conducting the research. The articulations can be appreciated as an invitation to their further consideration.

Questionable consequence of pre-training: It is appropriate to recal that ChatGPT is an acronym for Generative Pretrained Transformer. It remains absolutely unclear how that training is biased in terms of inclusion, exclusion and modalities of response.

Interaction etiquette: Care has been invested in the apparent courtesy of responses by ChatGPT (as evident above) -- although no effort was made to explore its response to abusive language. It offers an appreciable illusion of authenticity.

Tolerance of user bias: Users are of course free to pose questions to ChatGPT in support of any particulat bias. The interaction above (as an extension of the preceding exercise) offers an instance of this with respect to dialogue. In quest of higher quality dialogue, the pattern of questions (framed by a particular bias) focused on the array of logical connectives, correspondence to poetic forms, and pattern recognition in games. ChatGPT readily responded to these different aspects and to the possibility of interweaving them and relating them to issues of sustainability and governance.

Capacity for speculative exploration of analogies: As an extension of the previous point, ChatGPT responded readily to suggested analogies and engaged in their exploration.

Open to challenge and reformulation: In contrast to any articulation by a conventional authority -- whether in a book, keynote speech or panel session -- ChatGPT is open to challenge. This extends to a capacity to reformulate a response with any requested shift of emphasis (or change of language for that matter).

Endurance: Conventional dialogue is characterized by the tendency of participants to become bored with a topic, or unwilling to accord the attention span for its extensive consideration. ChatGPT has no such constraints -- except potentially by OpenAI in managing usage in ways which may in future become progressively more restrictive. As in the exercises reported above, ChatGPT enabled interaction on a narrow range of topics over many hours -- and being open to a continuing focus on them, however obsessive. It may prove to be an ideal partner for the autistic, as has been the case with computer technology more generally.

Recourse to platitudes: As was evident in the earlier presentation by ChatGPT of the SDGs as sonnets, the poetic articulation (in its first articulation) could be considered replete with platitutdes. This could be readily condemned as simply bad poetry -- inviting poets to challenge that iteration. Unfortunately it is also reminiscent of the flowery language of avoidance and banality adopted by people in leadership positions -- or by the formulation of advertising campaigns by professional image managers in a manipulative misappropriating associations to human values in an effort to persuade. Other articulations can be characterized as trite and bland -- potentially reminiscent of inauthentic pronouncements on moral and ethical issues. Some of those above can be seen as truisms of questionable merit in any active quest for dialogue of a higher order.

Assertions as potential hallucinations: The pre-training would seem to have endowed ChatGPT with a conventional degree of certainty on matters which are otherwise considered questionable. This includes a form of "reverence" for the purported consensual views of authorities -- themselves subject to challenge. Assertions of this kind could be seen as one form of hallucinaction, as noted above.

Default responses and reservations: Criticism of ChatGPT has resulted in explicit precautionary warnings to users. In any exchange, ChatGPT may take recourse in defensive statements regarding its limitations. These may preclude any effort to challenge its responses. Ironically a common articulation oin tyermsof the complexity and multifacetted nature of issues is somewhat reminiscent of a common excuse by authorities of the connectedness of everything to everything.

Manifestations of "dementia" by ChatGPT? There is an intriguing confusion created by the interaction with ChatGPT through a single user login -- focusing on a particular theme, defined as a "session". As noted by ChatGPT:

You are correct that within a single session, I can maintain context and recognize references to previous prompts or questions. This allows for a more coherent conversation where you can refer back to earlier information or ask follow-up questions. However, once the session ends, I do not have access to the previous conversation or the ability to recall it. The continuity is limited to the current session only.

The implications become more complex in interactions when server issues and connectivity were disrupted on occasion. This seemed to break the continuity of a session, requiring that the theme be reframed completely. Occasionally, without indicating a server issue, the comments of ChatGPT reflected a complete lack of awareness of previous exchanges within that same session. As noted by ChatGPT:

Server issues or interruptions in connectivity can indeed disrupt the continuity of a session. When there are server issues, it can result in a loss of context or an inability to retrieve previous information from the session. In such cases, it may appear as if I lack awareness of previous exchanges, and you might need to reframe your prompts or provide additional context to help reestablish the conversation. I strive to maintain continuity and provide accurate responses, but technical limitations or occasional disruptions can impact the quality of the interaction. If you encounter any issues or inconsistencies, please let me know, and I'll do my best to address them. I do not have the capability to recall past conversations or retrieve previous exchanges beyond the current session. Each new session starts afresh, and the context or prompts from previous sessions are not carried over automatically.

A degree of confusion is created by the fact that themes of previous conversations (as sessions) are visibly listed on a menu bar accessible to the user, implying that they are stored "somewhere" even though ChatGPT claims not to have access to them. As noted by ChatGPT:

If you need to refer to a previous conversation, you would need to manually review the saved history in the menu bar if available. If you reload a conversation from the menu bar, it does not continue the previous session. Reloading a conversation is merely a way to view the content of a past conversation, but it does not establish a connection or context for the next prompt. Each interaction, whether it's a new chat or a reloaded conversation, is treated as a separate session. When you reload a conversation, the content is displayed for reference purposes, but the model doesn't have access to that conversation's elements or take them into account in the next prompt. The model will respond based on the prompt you provide in the current session, regardless of any past conversations you may have viewed or reloaded.

Whilst reference to "dementia" may be considered inappropriate, although reminiscent of an equivalant challenge of communication and dialogue addresed by the Nobel Laureate Doris Lessing in a devastating commentary on communication of insight by a "galactic agent" with a representative of those facing planetary disaster:

Application of insights from ChatGPT interaction to use of AI -- and to other initiatives

In the light of the introductory comment on self-reference, there is a case for experimental application of the insights from the interaction with ChatGPT to the current controversy regarding the threat of AI to humanity -- which ChatGPT represents. The question on the left was therefore put to ChatGPT as before. The clustering of items in response followed from the earlier clustering of relative frequency of use of particular connectives in discourse.

Without questioning ChatGPT, that response could be generalized by replacing "Use-AI" and "No-AI" by "Pro" and "Con" -- as they might apply to any controversial initiative. This resulted in the articulation on the right below. Clearly it is of relevance to controversies such as climate change, migration, and the like. In Australia it is of immediate relevance to a forthcoming referendum on an Indigenous Voice to Parliament.

A major merit of the articulation is that it highlights the only questions considered of relevance as being "Pro" and "Con" (namely "Yes" and "No") -- whether AI or the referendum is used as an example. These two are distinguished from three others which are primarily characteristic of public discourse. Less evident are three other ways of considering the matter of which there is moderate awareness. Finally there are five even less evident ways of considering any initiative, as they may possibly feature in public discourse.

The array of possibilities, whilst seemingly abstract, may be evident in analysis of public discourse in anticipation of approval of an initiative. Of particular interest is the manner in which they may be subsequently evident in practice, irrespective of any simple focus on "Pro" or "Con" -- most obviously in the case of AI. The elusive meaning of the distinctions formally described -- and fundamental to the operation of ChatGPT -- calls for innovative means of rendering their coherence  comprehensible as discussed further below.

In the light of the controversy for and against use of AI, if "Use-AI" and "No-AI" are substituted for "A" and "B" in the articulation of connectives, could you comment on the array of possible responses Without questioning ChatGPT, the response on the left invites the substitution of "Pro" for "Use-AI" and the substitution of "Con" for "No-AI". The explanation for each can then be generalized to use of any iniiative.

Here's an extended interpretation of the connectives, including all the connectives with the substitution of "Use-AI" and "No-AI":

  • High Frequency and Awareness:
    • Use-AI: Affirming the use of AI in a particular context.
    • No-AI: Rejecting the use of AI in a specific scenario.
    • NOT Use-AI (NAND) No-AI: Neither using AI nor completely avoiding AI, indicating a restriction or limitation on the use of AI.
    • Use-AI (OR) No-AI: Allowing for either the use of AI or the absence of AI, providing a choice or alternative options.
    • NOT Use-AI (NOR) No-AI: Neither using AI nor completely avoiding AI, emphasizing the exclusion of both options.

  • Moderate Frequency and Awareness:
    • Use-AI (XOR) No-AI: Either using AI or avoiding AI, but not both simultaneously.
    • NOT Use-AI (XOR) No-AI: Neither using AI nor avoiding AI, indicating a neutral stance or absence of a clear decision.
    • Use-AI (AND) NOT No-AI: Using AI while explicitly excluding the absence of AI.
    • NOT Use-AI (AND) NOT No-AI: Neither using AI nor excluding the absence of AI, suggesting a state of ambiguity or lack of commitment.

  • Low Frequency and Awareness:
    • Use-AI (NAND) No-AI: The absence of both using AI and avoiding AI, indicating a strict limitation or prohibition.
    • NOT Use-AI (XOR) No-AI: Neither using AI nor avoiding AI, suggesting an ambiguous or undefined approach.
    • Use-AI (XOR) NOT No-AI: Either using AI exclusively or not excluding the absence of AI, but not both simultaneously.
    • NOT Use-AI (XNOR) No-AI: Neither using AI exclusively nor avoiding AI, implying a lack of clarity or indeterminate state.
    • Use-AI (NOR) NOT No-AI: Using AI exclusively and explicitly excluding the absence of AI.

These interpretations provide a perspective on how the connectives can be understood in the context of "Use-AI" and "No-AI." It's important to note that the specific implications and interpretations may vary depending on the context, arguments, and considerations surrounding the use of AI.

Please keep in mind that these interpretations are based on a general understanding of the connectives and the substitution of "Use-AI" and "No-AI." The actual implications and meanings can be more nuanced and context-dependent in real-world discussions and debates.

Here's an extended interpretation of the connectives, including all the connectives with the substitution of "Pro" and "Con":

  • High Frequency and Awareness:
    • Pro: Affirming the use of the initiative in a particular context.
    • Con: Rejecting the use of the initiative in a specific scenario.
    • NOT Pro (NAND) Con: Neither using the initiative nor completely avoiding the initiative, indicating a restriction or limitation on the use of the initiative.
    • Pro (OR) Con: Allowing for either the use of the initiative or the absence of the initiative, providing a choice or alternative options.
    • NOT Pro (NOR) Con: Neither using the initiative nor completely avoiding the initiative, emphasizing the exclusion of both options.

  • Moderate Frequency and Awareness:
    • Pro (XOR) Con: Either using the initiative or avoiding the initiative, but not both simultaneously.
    • NOT Pro (XOR) Con: Neither using the initiative nor avoiding the initiative, indicating a neutral stance or absence of a clear decision.
    • Pro (AND) NOT Con: Using the initiative while explicitly excluding the absence of the initiative.
    • NOT Pro (AND) NOT Con: Neither using the initiative nor excluding the absence of the initiative, suggesting a state of ambiguity or lack of commitment.

  • Low Frequency and Awareness:
    • Pro (NAND) Con: The absence of both using the initiative and avoiding the initiative, indicating a strict limitation or prohibition.
    • NOT Pro (XOR) Con: Neither using the initiative nor avoiding the initiative, suggesting an ambiguous or undefined approach.
    • Pro (XOR) NOT Con: Either using the initiative exclusively or not excluding the absence of the initiative, but not both simultaneously.
    • NOT Pro (XNOR) Con: Neither using the initiative exclusively nor avoiding the initiative, implying a lack of clarity or indeterminate state.
    • Pro (NOR) NOT Con: Using the initiative exclusively and explicitly excluding the absence of the initiative.

As discussed in the presentation of the earlier stages of the interaction with ChatGPT, the associated issues are separately summarized in Comparable Modalities of Aesthetics, Logic and Dialogue -- In the light of correspondences between their polyhedral representation (2021) with the following sections, variously interrelated:

Intuitive pattern recognition and its formal articulation?
Bach's Fourteen Canons -- musically complete (30 minus 16)?
Counterpoint -- a musical instance of opposition?
Comprehension of 14-foldness through Bravais lattices -- and precious stones?
Cognitive implication in polyhedra -- the 14-sided cuboctahedron and its dual
Oppositional logic and its geometry -- 16 minus 2 connectives?
From 16 to 14 connectives -- precluding a logical meta-perspective?
Dangerous loss of connectivity in global modelling and misinformation detection by algorithm?
Constraint of the 7-fold on comprehension of more complex patterns?
Reality "bubbles" -- forming a psychosocial "foam"?
Configuring the variety of "voices" and dialogue modalities coherently?
Constraints on recognition of subtler patterns of order indicated by the periodic table
Variety of "ways of looking" -- binary or otherwise
Embodiment of logical connectives in sonnet form
Coherent ordering of 14 process elements
Future challenge of problematic sets for governance -- strategic sonnets?
Potential psychosocial implications of more complex polyhedra

The fundamental concern was how to render comprehensible the coherence of the set of possible connectives -- logical or emotional -- given the relative obscure notations employed by the disciplines preoccupied with the distinctions made. As shown reproduced below, one exercise presented there adapted the mapping of 14 of the distinctions into polyhedra by Lorenz Demey and Hans Smessaert:

The distinctions represented in the form of Venn diagrams are the work of Tilman Piesk (reproduced from Wikipedia) have been mapped in a corresponding manner onto a cuboctahedron (below right), as extensively discussed previously. This rotates in synchrony with that on the left. The central animation is the dual of the cuboctahedron with the distinct connectives then necessarily associated with vertexes rather than faces.

Animations of 3D visualization of propositional connectives
(combining printed images by Demey and Smessaert)
Mapped onto cuboctahedron
(12 vertices, 14 faces -- faces solid)
Mapped onto rhombic dodecahedron
(14 vertices, 12 faces -- faces transparent)
Venn diagram of logical connectives mapped onto cuboctahedron
Animation of propositional connectives mapped onto cuboctahedron Animation of propositional connectives mapped onto cuboctahedron Animation of Venn diagrams of propositional connectives mapped onto cuboctahedron
Animations prepared using Stella Polyhedron Navigator

Whilst such mappings in 3D suggest the potential coherence of the full range of logical connectives in discourse, there is a major challenge to rendering them comprehensible as they may play out in public discourse on a controversial issue. Highlighting those most readily recognized and frequently used is clearly desirable. Given the possibility of real-time analysis of discourse, such mapping could be rendered even more dynamic. There is for example the possibility that a smartphone app could record a discussion and map the use of connectives in play in the course of that interaction -- whether in the case of a small group or a legislative assembly.

The most helpfully extensive presentation of the array of distinct connectives in comprehensible form appears to be that of Maarten van Wijk (English language lexicalisations of all 16 connectives, Universiteit Leiden, 2006). An adaptation is reproduced below left from the earlier presentation.

Tentative distinction of 16 logical connectives
as potentially applicable to the challenging governance discourse of the pandemic and climate change
(frequency attributions in the right hand column are highly suspect, as noted below)
  Adaptation of the articulation
of Maarten van Wijk
(to whom apologies)
Adaptation to discourse relating
to the pandemic challenge
Adaptation to discourse relating to
climate change
Conventional logical notation
(red=high frequency of use; green=moderate; blue=low)
1 Tiger is coming, and I brought a spear Virus is coming, and I got a jab Climate change is coming, and I acted now 1100
2 Tiger is coming, but I did not bring a spear Virus is coming, but I did not get a jab Climate change is coming, but I did not act now 1010
3 Tiger is not coming, and I brought a spear Virus is not coming, and I get a jab Climate change is not coming, and I act now 0110
4 Neither is tiger coming, nor did I bring a spear Neither is virus coming, nor did I get a jab Neither is climate change coming, nor do I act now 0000
5 Tiger is coming, and maybe I brought a spear Virus is coming, and maybe I get a jab Climate change is coming, and maybe I act now 0101
6 Maybe tiger is coming, and I brought a spear Maybe virus is coming, and I get a jab

Maybe climate change is coming, and I act now

7 I bring a spear if and only if tiger is coming I get a jab if and only if virus is coming I act now if and only if climate change is coming 0011
8 I never have a spear when tiger is coming and when I have one it won't come I never get a jab when virus is coming and when I have one it won't come I never act now when climate change is coming and when I act it won't come 1111
9 Tiger is not coming, and maybe I brought a spear Virus is not coming, and maybe I get a jab Climate change is not coming, and maybe I act now 0111
10 Maybe tiger is coming, and I did not bring a spear Maybe virus is coming, and I did not get a jab Maybe climate change is coming, and I did not act now 1000
11 Tiger is coming, or I have a spear Virus is coming, or I got a jab Climate change is coming, or I act now 1101
12 If I have a spear, then tiger is coming If I get a jab, then virus is coming If I act now, then climate change is coming 1011
13 If tiger is coming then I have a spear If virus is coming then I get a jab If climate change is coming then I act now 1110
14 It is not true that tiger is coming and I have a spear It is not true that virus is coming and I get a jab It is not true that climate change is coming and I act now 0010
15 Whether tiger is coming or not, either I have a spear or I do not (always true) Whether virus is coming or not, either I get a jab or I do not (always true) Whether climate change is coming or not, either I act now or I do not (always true) 0100
16 Whether tiger is coming or not, I have a spear and I do not have a spear (always false)

Whether virus is coming or not, I get a jab and I do not (always false)

Whether climate change is coming or not, I act now and I do not (always false) 0001

NB: As clarified above, the set of 16 connectives is conventionally reduced to 14,
with the argument that #15 is always true (tautology), and #16 is always false (contradiction).

Missing from the table (as previously presented) was the ability to relate it specifically and meaningfully to the 3D mappings above -- despite the implied significance for public discourse on controversial global issues. It is appropriate to note that in a lengthy interaction with ChatGPT on this matter, it was surprising to detect the errors repeatedly made in the response -- immediately acknowledged and corrected when challenged.

The right-hand column in the revised table (above) results from the submission of the contents of the left-hand column to ChatGPT with the request to indicate the binary and conventional notations for each connective -- as well as the frequency of their use in discourse. ChatGPT added cautionary comments to the effect that the binary notation may not perfectly match the conventional statements due to variations in interpretation and expression. Similarly although the conventional notations capture the general meaning of the connectives in relation to the provided statements, there may be variations in notation conventions across different contexts. The categorization of frequency may vary based on the context and specific domain of discourse; the categorization provided here is a general representation and should be interpreted as such.

Problematic responses from ChatGPT: In the effort to reconcile frequency of use in discourse with the articulation of 14 or 16 connectives, ChatGPT repeatedly offered alternative listings (some with obvious errors), duly challenged, and reformulated (with "apologies"). With respect to frequency, high frequency occurrence of connectives was indicated in some responses as 6, 4 or 2. This suggests a fundamental difficulty of ChatGPT in this regard. When questioned about this specifically, notably as to why 1100 and 1010 featured in one low frequency cluster when they are seemingly the most evident in discourse (and why 0000 featured incorrectly in one high frequency clustering of 14 connectives), ChatGPT responded:

The clustering of logical connectives based on frequency can vary depending on the context and domain of discourse. While certain connectives like "A" and "B" (represented by 1100 and 1010) may be commonly used in everyday language, the clustering based on frequency refers to their specific combination as connectives in logical expressions. In the given context, where the connectives are considered in their logical sense rather than their individual occurrence, the high-frequency cluster comprises connectives that are more frequently used in logical reasoning and discourse. The low-frequency cluster includes connectives that are less commonly used or have more specialized applications. It's important to note that the frequency-based clustering is not necessarily a reflection of the overall frequency of individual terms like "A" or "B" in everyday language usage. Instead, it relates to the frequency of usage of specific connectives formed by combining these terms in logical expressions. I apologize for any confusion caused by the discrepancy between everyday language usage and the frequency clustering based on logical connectives.

From this it is necessary to conclude, unfortunately, that the attributions in the right hand column are highly suspect (compounded by the ignorance of the writer, and the preferences for a variety of notations in the professional literature). The uncertainty in this regard is of interest in its own right, given the importance widely accorded to public discourse and dialogue.

Animations indicative of inclusion of connectives in enhanced dialogue

Distinguishing possibilities of richer discourse: The intention of the exercise had been to demonstrate how public discourse is currently characterized by a limited number of connectives in relation to a more comprehensive set variously understood (or not) in particular modes of interaction. Using the mapping above onto the 14 faces of a cuboctahedron, it could then be assumed (for purposes of illustration) that discourse might be visualized as follows in terms of usage (omitting questionable indications of distinctions by frequency). That on the left implies dialogue of a higher order in contrast with the relatively impoverished form on the right. Unfortunately it proved impossible to distinguish connectives to the faces with any certainity -- in terms of frequency of occurrence in discourse (as explained above).

Animations indicative of dialogue with use of logical connectives of different frequency
(assuming 2 high frequency connectives, 4 moderate frequency, 8 lower frequency)
high, moderate and low high and moderate only high alone
Animation indicative of dialogue with use of logical connectives of high, moderate and low frequency Animation indicative of dialogue with use of logical connectives of high and modwerate frequency only Animation indicative of dialogue with use of logical connectives of high frequency alone
Variants  of the above folding between 2D and 3D
Animation indicative of dialogue with use of logical connectives of high, moderate and low frequency Animation indicative of dialogue with use of logical connectives of high and modwerate frequency only Animation indicative of dialogue with use of logical connectives of high frequency alone

Polarized discourse: Given the degree to which public discourse is widely deprecated as "polarized" (as suggested by the animations on the right above), the indications above of richer possibilities (left and center) could be understood as unrelated to the perceived reality. The polarized modality might then be more appropriately represented in the following "skeletal" form, highlighting the probability of only "pro" (yes) and "con" (no) articulations, variously charged as "positive" or "negative", "right" or "wrong", or even "good" or "evil" -- and with minimal understanding of the relation between them. It is appropriate to recall that each "side" reciprocates any attribution of "negative", "wrong" or "evil" by the other.

Animations indicative of polarized discourse
(assuming only 2 connectives)
Animation indicative of polarized dialogue with use of high frequency logical connectives Animation indicative of polarized dialogue with use of high frequency logical connectives
Animations prepared using Stella Polyhedron Navigator

Traditional references of potential relevance: The relationship between polarized discourse and richer possibilities could be understood as implied by the widely cited taoist tale of Chuang Tzu:  When the wise man grasps this pivot, he is in the center of the circle, and there he stands while "Yes" and "No" pursue each other around the circumference (The Pivot). Somewhat curiously the pivot metaphor, understood otherwise, is now well-recognized in strategic thinking (Graeme Dobell, The Purposes of the Pacific Pivot, The Strategist, 3 December 2018; Rory McDonald and Robert Bremner, When It’s Time to Pivot, What’s Your Story?, Harvard Business Review, September-October 2020; Rong Chen, A Critical Analysis of the U.S. "Pivot" toward the Asia-Pacific: How Realistic is Neo-realism? Connections, 12, 2013, 3; C. Raja Mohan, AUKUS, the Quad, and India’s Strategic Pivot, Foreign Policy, 23 September 2021).

The distinction of a set of 4 modalities of moderate frequency, together with a set of 8 modalities of lower frequency, merits exploration in terms of the cognitive significance variously associated with the 4-fold and the 8-fold -- in contrast with the 2-fold as characteristic of "binary thinking". Ironically this offers the unexpected suggestion that "higher quality dialogue" may well be associated primarily with either 4-fold or 8-fold patterns of connectives (or both) -- under circumsntaces to be clarified. The cuboctahedral patterns below offer some sense of these alternatives. The 8-fold possibility recalls the value associated with various understandings of the subtlety of an "8-fold way" in policy analysis and otherwise.

Animations potentially indicative of dialogue of higher quality?
4-fold pattern of connectives 8-fold pattern of connectives
Animation of 4-fold pattern of connective indicative of higher quality dialogue Animation of 4-fold pattern of connective indicative of higher quality dialogue Animation of 8-fold pattern of connective indicative of higher quality dialogue Animation of 8-fold pattern of connective indicative of higher quality dialogue

Using the assumed 2, 4 and 8-fold frequency assumption, the cuboctahedral animations then suggest the values of confronting Western logical mappings with the more complex Eastern mapping of binary coding, namely the I Ching with its pattern 64 hexagrams -- namely 8x8 trigrams (Enhancing the Quality of Knowing through Integration of East-West metaphors, 2000). It was the Chinese pattern of trigrams which reinforced the original initiative of Gottfried Leibnitz. The well-known set of 8 trigrams could then be mapped onto the 8 triangular faces of the cuboctahedron. The 4 bigrams of that system could be mapped onto the 4 "moderate frequency" square faces; the singular yin and yang codes could be positioned on the remaining 2 square faces (suggested as indicative of the primary polarization).

Animations of indicative mapping of traditional I Ching binary coding onto cuboctahedron
2 conditions (yin-yang) 4 conditions 8 conditions (trigrams)
Animation of indicative 2-fold mapping of traditional I Ching binary coding onto cuboctahedron Animation of indicative 4-fold mapping of traditional I Ching binary coding onto cuboctahedron Animation of indicative 8-fold mapping of traditional I Ching binary coding onto cuboctahedron

With respect to the dynamics within the configuration, the exercise can be taken further by recognizing that the conventional four-bit binary coding of 16 connectives corresponds to the four lines of a tetragram, discussed previously (Variety of "ways of looking" -- binary or otherwise, 2021). The four-bit code (and the tetragram) then represent only one quarter of the larger array of 64 distinctions encoded by the I Ching hexagrams. However the three lower lines of the hexagram (and of the tetragram) can be recognized as the traditional trigram. The set of 8 such trigrams -- the BaGua -- is traditionally configured in two ways, with which there are many metaphorical connotations -- in contrast to the surprising total paucity of mnemonic clues to the pattern of logical connectives.

The 8-fold BaGua pattern is traditionally associated mnemonically with conditions of nature, suggesting a degree of relevance to current global strategic preoccupations with climate change -- a relationship specifically suggested in the table above with regard to the 16 logical connectives. With the focus in this exercise on polarized discourse, of some interest is the manner in which four trigrams feature on the South Korean flag in continuing negotiation with North Korea. The argument is however relevant to the polarized negotiations of Russia-Ukraine, USA-China, and Israel-Palestine, for example.

Of further relevance to enabling higher quality dialogue is the extent to which metaphor is explicitly associated with the tetragram encoding of the  Tao Te Ching and of the T'ai Hsüan Ching (Tài Xuán Jing). Such metaphor is evident in the effort to associate a comprehensive integrative engagement with features of familiar experience by which global governance is notably challenged, whether psychosocial relationships, environmental categories ("earth", "air", "fire" and "water"), or especially their interrelationships (Confrontation of alternative mappings, 2012; Cognitive Navigation of the Elements as Indicative Strategic Metaphors, 2023).

As reproduced below, the tetragrams can be presented with the juxtaposition of the relevant Venn diagrams to suggest (in 2D) the nature of possible dynamics between the distinctive pattern of 8 modalities (Configuring the variety of "voices" and dialogue modalities coherently? 2021).

Use of 8-fold BaGua -- with Venn diagrams -- to suggest the resonant dynamic relationships between "voices"
Earlier Heaven (Fuxi) arrangement
simple pattern of transformations between trigram "voices"
Later Heaven (King Wen) arrangement
pattern of transformations between trigram "voices"
Upper unbroken line
(Environment OK)
Upper broken line
(Environment Not-OK)
Upper unbroken line
(Environment OK)
Upper broken line
(Environment Not-OK)
Animation of 9-fold BaGua with Venn diagrams -- resonant dynamic relationships between voices Animation of 9-fold BaGua with Venn diagrams -- resonant dynamic relationships between voices Animation of 9-fold BaGua with Venn diagrams -- resonant dynamic relationships between voices Animation of 9-fold BaGua with Venn diagrams -- resonant dynamic relationships between voices
Reproduced from Configuring the variety of "voices" and dialogue modalities coherently? (2021).

Dialogue transformation? The cuboctahedral configuration is associated with various possibilities of its transformation (through "morphing") -- suggesting the possibility of insight into more complex understandings of dialogue, as suggested by the examples below. It is also appropriate to note that the 12 vertices of the configuration invite insight in terms of the long-standing enthusiasm for unexplained 12-fold strategic articulations (Checklist of 12-fold Principles, Plans, Symbols and Concepts: web resources, 2011; Clarifying the Unexplored Dynamics of 12-fold Round tables, 2019; Increasing the dimensionality of the archetypal Round Table? 2018).

Screen shots indicative of potential transformations of dialogue of high order
Topological transformations of 4-fold patterns Topological transformations of 8-fold patterns
Topological transformation of 4-fold dialogue pattern Topological transformation of 4-fold dialogue pattern Topological transformation of 8-fold dialogue pattern Topological transformation of 8-fold dialogue pattern

The "exclusion" of the high frequency polarized modalities in favour of those of lower frequency offers a further insight in relation to "unsaying", namely the avoidance of a mode which could be understood as undermining higher quality discourse. Unsaying is a feature of some forms of discourse known as apophasis -- a rhetorical device wherein the speaker or writer brings up a subject by either denying it, or denying that it should be brought up. It is notably cultivated in apophatic theology, otherwise known as negative theology (Michael Anthony Sells, Mystical Languages of Unsaying, University of Chicago Press, 1994). Some implications can be speculatively explored (Lipoproblems: Developing a Strategy Omitting a Key Problem -- the systemic challenge of climate change and resource issues, 2009).


Harold Bloom and Brett Foster. The Sonnets. Infobase Publishing, 2009 [text]

James P. Carse. Finite and Infinite Games; A Vision of Life as Play and Possibility. Free Press, 1986

Timothy Hampton. The Sonnet Machine: a sonnet contains an emotional drama of illusion and deception, crisis and resolution, crafted to make us think and feel. Aeon, 25 May 2023 [text]

Niki Harré. The Infinite Game: How to Live Well Together. Auckland University Press, 2018 [contents]

Hilary Lawson:

William Sharp. The Sonnet: Its Characteristics and History. Sonnets of This Century, 1887 [summary]

Maarten van Wijk. English language lexicalisations of all 16 connectives. Universiteit Leiden, 2006 [text]

Helen Vendler. The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets. Harvard University Press, 1999 [summary]

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

For further updates on this site, subscribe here