Yearbook of World Problems
Special index for plotting organization and
- / -
A special type of index is required to display in the
manner (space, computer programming and
time) the relationships
between problems in networks. To
simplify the task, only one
network will be dealt with at a time around one problem.
It is intended that the output from the processing run
a magnetic tape with data in a format approximating that for a line
printer. This tape would be used to
produce a reduced version
via a photocomposition process. The
resulting bromide or film
in galley format would be:
1.1. photocopied and used as questioning devices to
organizations conemed with the problems;
1.2. used selectively to produce a special index to the Yearbook.
The basis for selection could be:
1.2.1. problems most connected
1.2.2. problems most "at cause"
1.2.3. problems most "at consequence"
1.2.4. problems with most subsidiaries
1.3. used, for the "major" problems, as illustrations facing
the problem entry.
The input would be magnetic tape in the format of the
Yearbook index tape which has records by line number within
index number within problem number.
Each line represents
one index entry.
One index number would group records of the format
# NNNN X # MMMM X
where NNNN is the problem number and MMMM the problem cross-referenced.
The cross-reference type code is X. There are currently type codes as follows:
A contextual problems
B subsidiary problems
C associated problems
P aggravated problems
Q aggravating problems
R alleviated problems
S alleviating problems
T displaced problems
U displacing problems
Another index number contains the name of the problem NNNN; another contains
the names of international organizations concerned with the problem NNNN (together
with the reference numbers of those organizations in the Yearbook of International
Output is onto magnetic tape in line printer format. The output has several
3.1. Problem break, with its name
3.2. Type code break, with its name
3.3. a) Problem map for that code type with b) list of problem names,
under each of which are listed the organizations concerned with that problem.
4. Processing (outline suggestions)
4.1. Read index tape and extract onto disc
organization names (and number) concerned with that problem
problem cross-references for specified code types.
4.2. Processing can be sequential by problem, if "maps" are
required for all problems. Otherwise some means of specifying those problems
to be done must be provided (e.g. by card at run time).
4.2.1. Search out from problem origin to specified number of steps
(e.g. 6) for specified types of problems. At each step store number
in output line and name in table, e.g. o 1296P--o 4231P-- o 2619P-- o 0129P--o
4.2.2. Having completed on e sequence of steps, and therefore an
output line, exhaust the branches of the search, in each case creating output
The output lines will not repeat numbers to the left, since the sequence
is clear from the linking dashes, both horizontal and vertical.
NB: To clarify the information held on the index tape, note that in the
above example, the cross-reference index number (e.g. 23) for a given problem
would order the records for cross-references to the next step, e.g.
1296 would have 4231 and 3299 0502 would have 4210, 3860,4219
4.2.3. The table of numbers encountered during the search out from the
point of origin should be checked at each step so that duplicate sequences
and loops are not entered. When a duplicate is encountered, the search
of that branch should be terminated, flagging the duplicate number with
an asterisk, e.g. o 4296P**
4.2.4. When the search and listing is completed, the stored problem names
relating to the numbers listed should be listed out in number order, e.g.
for the above example:
4.2.5. As an option, it would be useful to be able to list out the organizations
concerned with each problem, e.g. for the above example, the organization
names should be added after the problem names
** International Organization. .......
** Committee on...................
** International Federation. ..........
4.5. If specified, a new set of cross-references or a new type code
(e.g. Q) should then be searched from the same origin and the result listed
in the same way, otherwise the procedure should be repeated for the next problem
5. Other Uses of Program
5.1. Clearly any network of relationships specified in this simple way
can be plotted using this program. It could be of immediate use in plotting
networks of organizations around a particular organization.
Type codes in this instance might be:
5.1.1. A - organizations to which it reports B - organizations
which report to it C - related organizations
5.1.2. P - organizations which it opposes Q - organizations which
oppose it R - organizations which it assists/funds, etc. S - organizations
which assist it etc.
5.2. Similarly, the program could be used for listing out relationships
between concepts - as suggested by the needs of the IPSA. Committee
on Conceptual and Terminological Analysis.
Type codes in this instance might be:
5.2.1. A - concepts which it is a component of B - concepts which
are components of it C - related concepts
5.3. It is possible that this type of search and display would be very
useful in an interactive mode. This mode would also be useful as a means
of incorporating new problem (or organizational) relationships.
6. Program Inadequacies
6.1. The restriction of line format makes it impossible to display satisfactorily
links between entities encountered on different search branches. This
could be remedied in line-printer format by placing the origin point at the
centre of the page and branching out in all directions. The links would,
howdver, have to be drawn in by hand. The display routine would be complicated
6.2. It is possible to incorporate problems of all type codes into one
map but this display then becomes confused and loops cannot be indicated.
6.3. These and other difficulties could be avoided by using an
interactive graphic display. This device is not widely available.
A compromise might be to plot the maps directly onto film using a microfilm
plotting device (with vector generator). This would enable many maps to be
produced very rapidly.
FIG. J EXAMPLES OF POSSIBLE INDEXES TO FIG. 3A AND FIG.
A. Subject/Bodies responsible index
This index may be used to determine(a) who could usefully be in contact with
whom with regard to each subject area, (b) who (at different levels of authority)
is responsible for initiating such a contact, (o) the date of the last and
next decision-making period at which such a contact could have been or could
be proposed, (d) areas of possible duplication of activity. On this last
point, the mandate of each body implicated in a possible duplication of activity
could be printed out by the computer as a qualifier on the subject area a
indexing, possible form:
SUBJECT ARE KEYWORD-A
- SU3-SUB-BODY-l RESPONSIBLE ... MEENTING DATA
- SUB-BODY-1 RESPONSIBLE MEETING DATA
- BODY-l RESPONSIBLE MEETING DATA
- BODY-2 responsible ... MEETING DATA ADDRESS ...
- SUB-BODY-3 RESPONSIBLE MEETING DATA
- BODY-3 RESPONSIBLE MEETING DATA
SUBJECT AREA KEYWORD-B
B. Organization/National contacts index
By cross-linking two organizational structures, e.g. an intergovernmental
organization and the member states administrative structures, the contact
points and 'opposite numbers' can be highlighted, as well as the chain of
responsibility ... possible form:
INTERGOVIRMENTAL COMMTTEE ON RIVER POLICY
- R.S. PERINI(1968) TECHNICAL advisor
RIVER PROTECTION SECTION
MINISTRY of agriculture
- UNITED kingdom
- L.N. BROWN (1966) coordinator advisory group ok river pollution,
- N.P. SMITHERS (1967) RESEARCH DIRECTOR RIVER NAVIGATION INSTITUTE
- etc.... INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR RIVER PROTECTION
C. National contacts/Organization index
Inverting this last index, an index by country is obtained. In other words
a directory of all the bodies within any given country concerned with aspecified
range of subjects is obtained. It. indicates which of these bodies, institutes,
departments, or societies are in contact with which, for example, international
organization, possible form:
- MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES
- PLANT PROTECTION DIVISION
- INTEGOVD NITEMPAL CONNITTEE on plants
- FAO advisory GROUPONplants
- INTER-AMERICAN PLANT PROTECTION ORGANIZATION
- Salmon ****** division
_ east atlantic Salnon fishing burlau
- MINISTRY OF TECHNOLOGY
D. Other indexes
Indexes need not berestricted to one type of structure. It should be posible
to selectsuitable indexes with great flexibility. An index mightinclude allthe
meeting,programmes, ad hoc groups concerned with a particular subjectxxx,
as well as the formal organiz- ations. Similarlyit should bepossible tomerge
in or select out information on international, national or local bodies, whether
governmental or nongovernmental, nonprofit, etc. In this way rigid categories
may be used when *** *** but do not distort the value of the information system
for other users,when the categories haveto be reshuffled to structure contact
for newtype of problem.
E. Other information.
Clearly in many cases a simple index width be quite inadequate. It is quite,
possible, however, to print out information
against each index entry.
Some possibilities are: date and location of last and future meetings, whether
a report was published for the last meeting, budget of the organ- ization,
date of establishment and relevant gal data, or the last time a particular
country was represented on the acutive, etc.
|Example of a possible dzesign of a computer produced
|Example of key to organization chart above
INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONFORDEVELOPMENT TECHNICAL PROBLEMS
AGREEMENT IGNED: 1953; CURRENT MEMBERSHIP: 20 STATES,
INFORMATION ON NATIONAL REPRESENTATIVE ON EACH COMMITTEE:
OH PILE TO MARCH 1969)
QUARY SUBJECT: TURBINE, MANUFACTUREPECISIONS
0001 GENERAL ASSEMBLI (ART. 9; PLENARY 1954; 3 YEARLY
0002 GENERAL EXECUTIVE (ART. 9.10; OPERATIONS COORDINATION;
1953; QTLY MTG;
0030 APPLICATION DIVISION (ART . 17; 1960)
0031 ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT (1960 )
0040 COMMITTEE ON STANDARDIZATION (L/49; 1961 )
0041 SUBCOMMITTEE ONDOCUMENTATION (M/13; 1961)
0042 WORKINGGROUP ON TERMINOLOGY (Z/62; 196l)
0043 ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON PATENTS (A/9; 1963)
0044 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING COMMITTEE (B/11; 1963)
0045 WATER POWERCONTROL GROUP (P/4: 194l)
0046 WATER POWER SECTION (P/5; 1964)
0047 TASK GROUP OP MODERNIZATION OF TRADITIONAL EQUIPMENT (P/6;
0048 SUBCOMMITTEE 0N CHARACTERISTICS OF TRADITIONAL EQUIPMENT
IN S. asiA
(L/2; 1969) 0049 COMMITTEE ON TURBINES (Q/3; 1964)
0050 TURBINE group (Q/4; 1965)
0051 CORROSION GROUP (N/16; 1967)
0052 AD HOC STUDY GROUP ON NEW MATERIALS(A/42; 1968)
0053 design group (N/9; 1966)
0054 PROPELLER TURBINES (N/10; 1967)
0055 TURBINE MANUFACTURE WORKING PARTY (32; 1969)
0056 DAM CONSTRUCTION ADVISORY GROUP (R/32 1964)
0057 POWER PLANT CONSTRUCTION advisorygroup (S/4; 1967)
0058 RIVER STUDY GROUP (E/2; 1964)
0059 METEOROLOGICAL GROUP (E/3; 1965)
0060 ADVISORY GROUP ONNATIONALAPPLICATIONS PLANNING (A/10;
0061 AD NOC GROUP N RIVER CONTROL POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS
(INDEXING OPTIONS SELECTED: SUBJECT/BODIES RESPONSIBLE
ORGANIZATION/NATIONAL CONTRACTS NATIONAL CONTACTS/ORGANIZATION)