1984

Movement and dance notation

Examples of Integrated, Multi-set Concept Schemes (Annex 8)

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See other Examples of Integrated, Multi-set Concept Schemes. The concept scheme described here is discussed in the paper on: Patterns of N-foldness: comparison of integrated multi-set concept schemes as forms of presentation. This was prepared for a sub-project meeting of the Forms of Presentation group of the Goals, Processes and Indicators of Development (GPID) project of the United Nations University (UNU). The annexes were published in Patterns of Conceptual Integration. Brussels, UIA, 1984, pp. 161-204

For some the Key to the development of human capacities is to be found in the dynamic configurations of dance which are intimately related to the shapes and rhythms through which living organisms express and communicate. The following points are extracted from the work of the originator of a system of natation for the grammatical and syntactical aspects of the language of movement:

  • Rudolf Laban, Choreutics. Macdonald and Evans, 1966 (Annotated and edited by Lisa Ullman). See also
  • Albrecht Knust. Handbook of Kinetography Laban. Macdonald and Evans

0.1 "Choreosophy seems to have been a complex discipline in the time of the highest Hellenic culture. Branches of...(this)... knowledge of circles came into being and were named "choreography", "choreology" and "choreutics". The first, choreography, means literally the designing and writing of circles. The word is still in use today: we call the planning and composition of a ballet or a dance "choreography". For centuries the ward has been employed to designate the drawings of figures and symbols of movements which dance composers, or choreographers, jotted down as an aid to memory. There exist many systems, old and new, of dance notation and notation of movement in general, but most of them are restricted to a particular style of movement with which the writer and reader are familiar. Today we need a system of recording which can be universally used, and I have attempted to forge a way in this direction." (p. viii)

0.2 "...choreutics, may be explained as the practical study of the various forms of (more or less) harmonised movement. Movement is one of man's languages and as such it must be consciouly mastered. We must try to find its real structure and the choreological order within it through which movement becomes penetrable, meaningful and understandable. In an attempt to do this, it has been found necessary to use various graphi signs, because words can never be entirely adequate in dealing with the chaning nature of the subject before us. They are abstractions and, as it were, short cuts in the flow of life." (P. viii)

0.3 "Our own movements and those we perceive around us are basic experiences. Forms of objects, as well as the shapes assumed by living organisms, wax and wane uninterruptedly....Forms are closely connected with movement. Each movement has its form, and forms are simultaneously created with and through movement. The illusion of standstills creates an artificial separation of space and movement....Empty space does not exist. On the contrary, space is a super- abundance of simultaneous movements." (p. 3)

0.4 "It is possible to follow and understand the continuous creation of spatial impressions through the experience of movement. The relationships between single spatial appearances cause movement to follow definite paths. The unity of movement and space can be demonstrated by comparing the single snapshots of the mind with each other, and showing the natural order of their sequences and our natural orientation in space are based on similar laws." (p. 4-5)

0.5 "Children and the man of primitive ages see the world through a bodily perspective, that is through physical experience. They see the amazing unity of all existence. Man of later times loses this view through his reflective delusions, and also because of his increasing tactile incapacity. He establish- es stability in his mind as a contrasting partner to mobility. In this way he becomes unrelated to his surroundings..." (p. 6)

0.6 "The art, or the science, dealing with the analysis and synthesis of movement, we call "choreutics". Through its investigation and various exercises choreut- ics attempts to stop the progress of disintegration into disunity. The bodily perspective, with all its significance for the human personality, can have a regenerating effect on our individual and social forms of life....which helps us to explain the role that dance played in certain epochs of civilisation when a notable harmony was achieved." (p. 8)

0.7 "The science of harmonic circles has its origin in the discovery of the laws which rule the architecture of the body. It is obvious that harmonious move- ment follows the circles which are most appropriate to our bodily construction. ...Our body is the mirror through which we become aware of ever-circling motions in the universe with their polygonal rhythms. Polygons are circles in which there is spatial rhythm, as distinct from time rhythm." (p. 26)

0.8 "The study of movement deals with the spatial order of the paths which the limbs make in the kinesphere (i.e. space within the reach of the body), and also with the connection between outer movement and the mover's inner attitude. This attitude is not only shown in the choice of a certain path or the employ- ment of a certain limb, but is also characterised by the choice of dynamic stresses....It is possible to relate the moving person's feeling for dynamics to the spatial harmonics within trace-forms and to the zones through which the paths of the trace-forms lead....Although dynamospheric currents are secondary in respect of their spatial visibility, they may be regarded as the primary factor in the actual generating of our movements; that is, the generat- ing of visible spatial unfoldings and definite directional sequences with which they form a unity." (p. 27 and 36)

0.9 "In the art of movement, and particularly in dance, economy of effort is coupled either with an emphasized play of keeping or giving up equilibrium, or with a refined employment of harmonious combinations of the same dynamic patterns that occur in everyday movement." (p. 45]

0.10 "The will or the decision to move springs from the depth of our being. We not only alter the positions of our bodies and change the environment by our activity, but bring an additional colour or mood to our movements from our psyche,...A completely voluntary movement, in which every detail is premeditated and controlled, is for the dancer or the actor a very rare fulfilment....Only when a part of the quality of movement is, or seems to be, unconscious do we speak of a natural or true expression." (p. 48-9)

0.11 "Each bodily movement is embedded in a chain of infinite happenings....We should never forget that every gesture and action of our body is a deeply rooted mystery and not a mere outward function or trick, as many people regard it in modern times.It was thus that tumbling or standing on the head could once have been a sacred play." [p. 54)

0.12 "The manifestations of our inner being become evident in almost invisible shadow-forms, giving more emotional colour than spatial form....These almost invisible shadow-forms can be compared with the almost inaudible overtones in music." (p. 66)

0,13 "So far the experience of the interdependence of dynamospheric and kinespheric sequences has shown us that the conventional idea of space as a phenomenon which can be separated from time and force and from expression, is completely erroneous." (p. 67)

0.14 "Kinespheric space is created by placing trace-forms around the body. In feel- ing dynamic space, the body is not aware primarily of fixed emplacements, but is driven by ever-changing dynamic impulses. They are associated with complicated spatial arrangements which result in indistinct, changeable feel- ings....Our mental functions employ geometrical symbols to express orientation in space, but generally our feeling does not comprehend living movement within geometrical plasticity, Man can accustom himself to seeing and feeling the two differing views of body and mind simultaneously." (p. 88)

0.15 "It is surprising to realise that our conception of equilibrium is filled with a number of delusions. A most important way of attaining what we call equil- ibrium is found in the so-called movements of opposition....The wish to estab- lish equilibrium through symmetric movements is the simplest manifestation of what we call harmony: the aim of this is not merely to hold the body in an upright position, but to achieve a unity of form, a wholeness, a completeness. Equilibrium through asymmetric movements has very many aspects. The influence of a flow of forms which disturbs a simple symmetry leads to asymmetric movements which must necessarily be completed by other asymmetric tensions or moves." (p. 89-90)

0.16 "Dance is the transition into a world in which the illusory, static appearances of life are transformed into clear spatial dynamism. Awareness of this spatial world and its exploration open up a horizon of unexpected breadth. From the simplest motion to the artistic creation of dancing, the flowing stream of movement expresses dynamic space, the basis of all existence. All movement emerges from this infinite abyss and disappears into it again. Dynamic space, with its terrific dance of tensions and discharges is the fertile ground in which movement flourishes....All movement is an eternal change between binding and loosening, between the creation of Knots with the conentrating and uniting power of binding, and the creation of twisted lines in the process of untying and untwisting.-Stability and mobility alternate endlessly." (p. 943)

0.17 "We can understand all bodily movement as being a continuous creation of fragments of polyhedral forms....The dynamics of movement give rise to shapes which can often be felt as intermediary stages between the different crystall- ine forms. They can be organised in the cuboctahedric scaffolding which derives from the three simple polyhedral forms of tetrahedron, octahedron, and cube, as well as in the icosahedron which, as mentioned above, is a dynamic variation of the cuboctahedron." (p. 105 and 109)

0.18 "The movements of our body follow rules corresponding to those of mineral crystallisations and structures of organic compounds. The shape which possibly offers the most natural and harmonious tracks for movements is the icosahedron. It contains a rich series of combined inner and outer trace-lines with dimen- sional connections provoking "stable", i.e. easily equilibrated, movements as well as diagonal connections provoking disequilibrating movements....The final aim, however, is to sustain or promote the processes concerned with the structural arrangements which happen within our body-mind. Any action or any form of behaviour unfolds within the bounds of dynamic crystallisation."(p.1143

0.19 "Space-time configurations unfold in a flower-like manner; they swallow and engender formations; they wither and die and are reborn often filled with entirely unexpected inner and outer potentialities. Together with the dynamic rhythm with which the flowing energy drives along their tracks they constitute the vehicle of the language of movement." (p. 136)

1.1 "From the simplest motion to the artistic creation of dancing, the flowing stream of movement expresses dynamic space, the basis of all existence. All movement emerges from this infinite abyss anddisappears into it again," (p. 94)

1.2 "The four shapes (recurring in all human movement) are all parts or metamorph- oses of one basic trace-form, the spiral....the body tends to form a spiral or round pathway with a wave-like [tortillé) movement....the mathematical law of this shape related to the geometry of curves was defined and the shape was called "lemniscate"." (p. 84-5)

1.3 "In considering man's natural way of moving we have so far stated that...purely one-dimensional movement never occurs." (p. 143)

2.0 "It now becomes necessary to give further attention to the structure of the

kinespheric "scaffolding". This is characterised by two main types of tensions: 1. Between the surface-lines or edges. 2. Between the lines traversing the scaffolding -- the dimensions, the diagonals, the diameters and the "transvers- als", (p. 68)

2.1 "The change from one pose to another can be done in two different ways....The first Kind of movement is "monolinear". the second "polylinear". A sequence of either creates pathways in space. These paths can be closed lines, which may be called "circuits", or "rings", since they return to their starting point, or open lines or curves which lead from one point of the kinesphere to another." (p. 21)

2.2 "In fact, we are able to make an infinite number of trace-forms and each of these trace-forms consists of an infinite number of single parts or situations. These two infinities must be taken into consideration when we wish to understand and describe movement." (p. 28)

2.3 "These dynamic traits have different degrees of intensity, leading to two contrasting elements within each. Rapidity is a higher degree of speed than slowness. Strength is a higher degree of force than weakness. Straightness is a higher degree of directional flux than roundaboutness," [p. 55)

2.4 "Our intellect distinguishes between three forms of symmetry in space: up and down, left and right, forward and backward, but when the body follows trace- forms it appreciates only left-right symmetry." (p. 81)

2.5 "In considering man's natural way of moving we have so far stated that...two- dimensional movement is possible but does not really correspond to the potential of human movement, because it is too bound and clumsy; its characteristic is stable." (p. 143)

2.6 "All parallel inclinations can similarly be connected to form such rectangles-, called two-rings, as they contain only two transversals which through their direction and counter direction give the feeling of going and returning....The 24 transversals can, therefore, be formed into twelve two-rings....we meet an interesting harmonic relation which exists between a set of three two-rings..., We find that these three two-rings are related to another by the peripherals which in each following ring have become the transversals and after three changes the first ring is established again....We distinguish, therefore, four sets of three two-rings, each of which forms a cycle." (p. 190, 200-1)

2.7 "The two fundamental movement shapes, that of penetrating space and that of embracing it, create trace-forms..." (p. 193)

3.1 "...but for our purpose, which is to find characteristic views offering a foundation for a multilateral description of movement, we may find it useful to select the following aspects:

  1. That of mentality plunged into the intangible world of emotions and ideas.
  2. That of the objective observer, from outside.
  3. That of the person enjoying movement as bodily experience, and observing and explaining it from this angle,...

A synthesis of these three aspects operates constantly in each one of us. We are all emotional dreamers, and scheming mechanics, and biological innocents, simultaneously: sometimes we waver between these three mentalities, and some- times we compress them in a synthesised act of perception and function." (p. 7)

3.2 "The basic elements of orientation in space are the three dimensions: length, breadth, and depth....The three-dimensional form composed of height, breadth, and depth, which is easiest to visualise, is the cube....There are four such space diagonals in the cube, and they intersect at a point in the body which coincides approximately with its centre of gravity, which is also the centre of our kinesphere..." (p. 11)

3.3 "Three different spatial levels may be distinguished: one on the floor, another at the mid-height of the body, and the third at the height of the hands, when raised above the head." (p. 12)

3.5 "The eight fundamental dynamic actions are composed of three basic dynamic traits: speed, force and directional flux. These dynamic traits have different degrees of intensity, leading to two contrasting elements within each (see 2.3 above]....Experience proves that extreme contrasts of dynamic actions in which there are contrasting elements of all three fundamental traits...cannot be performed by the body immediately one after the other. Transitional movements must be introduced." (p. 55-6)

3.6 "These three experiences might be called those of the past (looking towards the start of the movement), of the future (looking at the goal), and of the present (concentraing on the flow). The experience of past, present or future, provoked by a bodily attitude (Keeping our eyes focused on different spatial parts of the trace-form), offers us an aspect of time which differs basically from another aspect of time which we chiefly observe in bodily action, namely quantities of speed: quickness and slowness." (p. 86-7)

3.7 "We call a volute a three-ring when, together with its vol-link, it forms a movement-unit, a circle consisting of three equally stressed sections....One might conclude that 24 three-rings would arise out of 24 volutes (six volutes in four scales). This is not the case by any means...Thus the manifoldness of the volutes is suddenly reduced to eight circular configurations which contain all the possibilities arising from the four twelve-link scales. These provide simple themes from the harmonious movement sequences and variations can be developed..." (p. 163-5)

3.8 "It is not possible to provide a completely comprehensive explanation of the dynamic actions in terms of time and force only. A third conception must be used which derives from spatial influences." (p. 30) (see 6.2)

4.1 Four-diagonal cross: "There ere four such diagonals in the cube, and they intersect at a point in the body which coincides approximately with its centre of gravity, which is also the centre of our kinesphere..." (p. 11)

4.2 "Almost all positions of the body can be reduced or related to a tetrahedral form for they are plastic variations of the flat quadrangle. The fundamental poses in the sacred dances of Oriental peoples frequently show regular five- cornered, quadrangular or tetrahedral forms....A movement in flight is likely to be many directional...In these many-directional movements a tetrahedral Kernel can, nevertheless, be recognised as the simplest expression of the whole tension." (p. 20-1)

4.3 "The tradition of the dance enumerates four fundamental trace-forms which have the following shapes, called in the terminology of classical ballet: droit (straight), ouvert (curved), tortillé (twisted), rond (rounded). They are standard forms which recur in all human movements including those organised in scales, and they may evolve in space in one of several zones of the limbs. All trace-forms can be understood as built up by these four basic formal elements. «...The four shapes are all parts or metamorphoses of one basic trace-form, the spiral." (p. 83-4)

4.4 "The following is a survey of the four transversal (12-inclination) standard scales showing their structure and relationships. Comparing the four scales with one another we notice that the 1st and 2nd, as well as the 3rd and 4th, correspond with one another symmetrically." (p. 156-7)

4.5 "...the four-rings, which consist of two transversals and two peripherals, like the two-rings; they are, however, not parallel in pairs, but have only the same character (flat, steep, or flowing) in pairs....they are situated only in one half of the kinesphere." (p. 191-2)

5.2 "Our flat bodily structure encourages a division into five principal zones: the zone of the head, the two zones of the arms, and the two zones of the legs....Our body,in this pentagonal pose, is like a star with five equal pulls towards five points of the kinesphere....The fundamental poses in the sacred dances of Oriental peoples frequently show regular five-cornered...forma." (p. 19-21)

5.3 "Without a transversal counterpart but interesting as a movement experience are the five-rings, in which we meet for the first time an inclusion of the dimensionals in the harmonic relations. A dimensional is taken as the basis of each five-ring, and by this we can best recognise them....When we consider stability and mobility, we find that the zones which we had established in connection with the circumvention made by five-rings, are of great importance." (p. 1B2 and 204)

6.1 Six-diametral cross: "We also distinguish axes which lie between two diagonals and two dimensions (of the cube). We may call them "diamters" and consider them to be "deflected" from the dimensions or from the diagonals. There are six such dimaters in the cube and they also intersect roughly at the centre of gravity." (p. 11) Actually, the six dimaters or primary deflected inclinat- ions are those which we most easily distinguish when seeing and experiencing movement." (p. 17)

6.2 "Six elementary distinctions thus emerge (from 3.8 above) and experience shows that they have a definite correlation with the six fundamental directions in space: up and down, left and right, backward and forward. When we move into these directions a kind of secondary tendency appears in the body, namely a dynamic quality which is not always clearly definable by the spectator but is very real to the mover. One can set fown the following scheme:

1. A feeling of lightness... 4. ...spatial freedom...

2. A strong, firm movement... 5. ...quick, sudden...contraction...

3. ...spatial restriction... 6. ...slowness and sustainment...

This simplified scheme forms the basis for certain correlations of dynamic nuances with spatial directions and this reciprocal relationship rules harmonious movement in the kinesphere." (p. 30-1)

6.3 "In every kind of fighting observed innature certain features of defence may be noticed, since all highly organised beings have... (6)...particularly vulnerable regions of the body....Man protects these six vulnerable regions by six special movements....The movements of defence (called in fencing, parrying) are arranged in a definite sequence which is identical with the above description ion. The parry number one is called in fencing, "prime"..." (p. 37-8)

6.4 "All actions can be linked together by a series of intermediary movements. Between one action-mood and its extreme contrast there are six possible series of connection....The linking of any action-moods produces a kind of trace-form which does not always take on a definite kinespheric shape but influences the dynamic expression of the move." (p. 57-8)

6.5 "Each diagonal is surrounded by a chain of six transversals (a "cluster"), a chain of six surface-lines (a "girdle")..." (p. 68)

7.1 "Dance uses seven fundamental cross-sections of space. These are the three dimensions of an octahedron and the four diagonal cross-sections of a cube. Music uses seven fundamental notes....The series of distances between spatial cross-sections which the dancer uses to orientate himself form scales, and the series of musical notes also form scales. The "diaformic" scale which we propose to use in dance, consists of seven inclinations whose sequence divides into two unequal parts, one formed by three surface inclinations and the other by four. Five other surface inclinations form, together with the seven of the diaformic scale, a "chromatic" scale of twelve links (the standard scale)." (p. 118-9)

7.2 "Survey of elements restraining or promoting flux of movement:....

  1. Dimension - restraining. Diagonal - promoting the flux of movement
  2. Remining in the same diagonal " restraining. Transition from one diagonal to another -promoting
  3. Plane-like, shapes " restraining flux. Plastic shapes - promoting flux
  4. Returning to the starting point = restraining flux. Progressing in space " promoting flux.
  5. Stable relationships - restraining flux.-- Labile relationships = promot- ing flux
  6. Peripherals are restraining; transversals are promoting
  7. Regular rhythm is restraining; irregular rhythm is promoting." [p. 2DB-9)

7.3 "...seven rings...play an important part in the harmony of movement....An interesting series of configurations which consist of a combination of trans- versals and peripherals are the mixed seven-rings....There are six mixed seven-rings related to each of the four axis-scales." (p. 185 and 193-4)

6.1 Four-diagonal cross: "it is formed by the eight diagonal directions, radiating from the common centre of the body and its kinesphere....Each diagonal direct* ion or ray lies between three directions or rays of the (6) dimensional cross..7 (p. 153

8.2 "Compounds of these [see 6.2 above) which form the eight fundamental dynamic actions evolve in areas of the dynamosphere which correspond approximately to the eight diagonal directions of the kinsphere [see 8.1 above)....The... (four)...pairs of action-moods of which each single part is in extreme contrast to its partner are:

- punching - floating

- slashing - gliding

- wringing - dabbing

- pressing - flicking" (p. 32-3 and 58)

8.3 "A remarkable fact is that there is a close proximity in kinespheric space between related action-moods, and a growing distance between action-moods of estranged inner relations. The eight fundamental dynamic actions are composed of three basic dynamic traits: speed, force and directional flux. These dynamic traits have different degrees of intensity, leading to two contrasting elements within each," (p. 553 [See also 2.3)

9,1 The..."three levels of a cube in relation to: (a) the dimensional cross [see 3.43, (b) the diagonal cross [see 4.1), ec) the diametral cross (see 6.1)" (p. 16) have 9 positions at each level.

12.1 "All this has a deeper meaning. The unconscious automation associated with the cluster is counterbalanced by the wakeful emphasis associated with the girdle [see 6.5 above). Therefore, movements which are neither automatic nor emphatic will follow trace-forms of a chain within the twelve-link chain, which is the prototype of all ordinary movement chains, and thus it may be considered as the "standard" scale. This standard scale can revolve around various axes with different orientations, but its form remains the same. The inner cause of a change of axis is a change of mood or feeling, or of practical intention. For instance, the need or decision of attack or defence causes either an increase of mobility or an increase in stability." (p. 723

12.2 "The standard scale is especially useful as it can be shown to contain a series of shapes which are the basic elements of almost all trace-forms employed in movement. Each chain of twelve links can be divided into six, four, three or two parts. The points of these divisions when joined together form regular polygons, that is, hexagons, quadrangles, and triangles, and in the case of two parts, a straight line....These polygons...are related to the trace-forms of certain characteristic movements." (p. 72-33

12.3 "The twelve movements towards the twelve points of the kinesphere not only make a division of space possible, but also are in themselves units of harmonic interrelations. The criterion by which harmonic relations can be evaluated are the standard scales, which connect and accentuate the twelve points..." (p. 82)

12.4 "The influence of a flow of forms which disturbs a simple symmetry leads to asymmetric movements which must necessarily be completed by other asymmetric tensions or moves. The {12-part) standard scale has two parts. The first series of six movements is situated in the opposite area of the kinesphere to that of the second series of six movements. The inclinations of the two series are parallel but they are followed in reversed directions. The standard scale, being the prototype of a chain which has equilibrium in its flow of forms, is the basis for the experience of spatial harmony." (p. 90)

12.5 "It may be stressed that natural movement sequences existed long before any theory about them was developed. In discovering their lawful course these age-old movement sequences were evaluated and established from the point of view of their twelve-partedness in a similar manner to the way in which musical scales and other harmonic sequences were established." (p. 154)

20.1 (Following 4.4 above) "This can be clearly felt in the body, as the 1st and the 3rd scales contain movements essentially for the right side which are mirrored by the left in the movements of the 2nd and the 4th scales....If we now take... (the 1st and 2nd scales)...as a unit containing 24 transversals, we see that they do not represent 24 different inclinations, but only 20. This is because the 1st inclination of the right scale is identical to the 10th of the left, the right 4th to the left 7th, the right 7th to the left 4th, and the right 10th to the left 1st. The right-left symmetry causes the flat inclinations, which cross from one side to the other, to exchange their identity in the two scales." (p. 157)

24.1 "The scaffolding (cubic) of the kinesphere built up so far has 24 surface-lines which are parallel to the six primary deflected inclinations, which we call diameters." (p. 68)

24.2 Transversals: "...distinguish themselves by not intersecting at the centre of the kinesphere....They never link endpoints of dimensionals or diagonals, or form a surface-line of the scaffolding....The four transversal standard scales and the four axis scales are the only scale-like configurations which results from assembling the 24 transversals in a harmonic order." (p. 68 and 163

24.3 "One can also relate the twenty-four inclinations to the three-rings....Likewise all twenty-four transversals have a function in the two-rings as well as in the four-rings. We have ascertained that there are twelve two-rings and twelve four-rings. Each of these contains two transversals and two peripherals, with the result that all inclinations are contained in each of the twelve rings (2 a 12 and 2 x 12)." (p. 196)

26.1 "The...26 directions radiate from the centre of the kinesphere..." (p. 13)

27.1 "The...26 directions radiate from the centre of the kinesphere, the 27th point of direction, and establish three planes at different levels..." (p. 13)

30.1 "Generally we turn the head to either side at an angle of approximately 300, . turning further...requires the participation of an increased area of the body." (p. 106) (See also 60.1)

45.1 "Normally from a balanced carriage the head bends forward and backward at an angle of approximately 45 ...(=)...Angle between dimensionals and diamters [of the icosahedron)." (p. 106-7)

60.1 "It is remarkable that the...complete turing angle of the head is about 600, the angle of an equilateral triangle...(=)...Angle between the neighbouring surface-lines and also triangles formed by transversals (of the icosahedron)." [p. 106-7)

72.1 "In everyday life the flexion and extension of the vertebral column achieves an angle of approximately 72 ...The angle...between transversals and a surface- line in the icosahedron. The turning of the hips also comes near 720." (p. 106)

90.1 "It is remarkable that the complete bending angle of the head is approximately a right angle, the angle through which we pass from one dimension of space to another...(=)...Angle between two dimensions (of an icosahedron)." (p. 106-7)

108.1 "Flexion and extension of the shoulder joint or lifting angle of the stretched arm forward and backward [without rotating the scapula)...(=)...Angle between two non-neighbouring surface-lines belonging to a five-ring (of an icosahedron)" (p. 107)

360.1 "Every point of the kinesphere can be reached with any one limb, which means that together they have a reaching span of 360 when helped by certain contributory movements from other parts of the body." (p. 107)


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