15th September 2003
- / -
This is an exploration of the degree of equivalence between the current actions
of "Al-Qaida" and those of the "Bushwackers" during the
period around the American Civil War. The focus is on how these groups were,
and are, respectively perceived and portrayed. The purpose of this review is
to examine the ambiguities in assessing their role as "terrorists"
in situations in which different groups frame their actions as either horrific,
unjustified or heroic. A further reason is the use of the term "Bushwacker"
in relation to the actions of the coterie of people surrounding George Bush
-- who again may be perceived as engaged in actions which are horrific, unjustified
For the five years before the American Civil War, residents of the neighboring
states of Confederate Missouri and pro-Union Kansas waged their own civil conflict,
one that was characterized by unrelenting and unparalleled brutality. Both sides
were lined up along the border, ready to fight for race. War is about armies
on the battlefield, but this was personal. More than anywhere else in the nation,
the conflict raging in Missouri and Kansas was truly a civil war, whose wounds
were a long time in healing.
One of the difficulties, as with any discussion of modern terrorism, is the
perspective from which distinctions are made. It was a characteristic of the
Civil War period that guerilla activity and milita groups were formed in defence
of areas and in revenge for depredations exacted upon them. The subtleties of
how "official" or "legitimate" were these activities would
have been considered theoretical in that context. According to their actions,
and the allegiances which they may have successfully or unsuccessfully fomed
with more bodies percieved to be more legitimate, their own status and legitimacy
might be reframed either positively or negatively.
Some useful distinctions are made in Partisans,
Guerillas, Irregulars and Bushwhackers "The Truth Behind The Names".
(The Missouri Partisan Ranger, 1995) which notes: "Through the course
of time, media articles, novels, and even personal conversations, has there
been a huge lack of understanding of these terms. Many of which are used interchangeably
and tossed about with abandon":
- Partisan: "A Partisan was any person loyal to the State of Missouri's
Confederate status. And, a lot of the time, they were of civilian status,
and helped the Partisan Rangers with food, clothing, aid, etc."
- Partisan Rangers: The Missouri Partisan Rangers were men that usually
had suffered through their family being murdered, raped, stolen from as well
as their farms and food crops stolen or destroyed by the Federal Occupational
Armies. Some (such as William C. Quantrill, William T. Anderson, George Todd,
John Thrailkill, etc.) "formed companies of men to combat the occupational
forces (especially the Red Legs and Jayhawkers) that infested the State of
Missouri. Sometimes applicable, an appropriate reference to the Missouri Partisan
Ranger may also be Missouri Irregular Cavalry."
- Guerillas: "These men were also some of the Missouri Partisan
Rangers, that during the war, had invented a style of warfare still used today.
The 'guerrilla' fighter. They were masters of stealthing, reconnaissance,
disguise (many dressed as Federals or women and snuck right into enemy territory,
camps and towns), using massive firepower to overcome overwhelming odds, tactics
of surprise and entrapment, etc." One oath was: "I swear to defend the
Constitution of the Confederate States, obey orders and kill Yankees."
- Bushwackers: In practice there has been considerable difficulty in
distinguishing "Bushwackers" from "Partisan Rangers" or
"Irregular Cavalry". The confusion may well have been deliberately
intended -- then and now. For the Missouri Partisan Ranger, whilst
some Missouri Partisan Rangers "were Bushwackers, the vast majority were
not". Some units of the Missouri Partisan Rangers were indeed very adept
at using the "brush" or "bush" for camoflage, survelliance, and tactical manuevers
and suprise attack. Bushwhackers lived in the "bush," or country, and their
legs "whacked" the bushes as they rode. "Bushwacker" was often mistakenly
used as a generic term for Missouri Guerrillas. They have been described as
a mirror image of Jayhawkers -- in that they favored the Confederacy. Some
were semi-legitimate soldiers, even grudgingly acknowledged by the Confederate
Army (such as William Quantrill, "Bloody Bill" Anderson, John Thrailkill,
David Pool, Jo Shelby and Jeff Thompson). In actuality, the vast majority
of so-called Bushwackers were the dregs of Northern and Eastern society and
were vicious predators. A sort of 1850 - 1860's "land pirate" -- simply bandits
who had a quasi-military excuse for ambush, robbery, murder, arson and plunder.
The confusion was cultivated to "villify the Missouri Partisan Ranger
and attribute attrocity, murder and violence to them". "This type
of 'Bushwacker' was not from Missouri. And for the most part, actually were
of Federal extraction from Indiana, Ohio, Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, Maine, etc.
Coming to prey on the helpless civilians of Missouri, using the brush for
ambush and cover." They had no loyalty to either North or South.
- Border Ruffians: A generic term that used for both Kansans and Missourians
during the bloody Border War between them
- Red Legs: Refers to a group of pro-Union men organized to form the
3rd, 4th and 5th Kansas Regiments .
- Jayhawkers: A term (signifying a bird that ambushes and attacks a
weaker prey) applied to anti-slavery, pro-Union Kansan free-state guerrilla
fighters opposed to Confederate Missouri during the struggle over Kansas in
the years prior to the Civil War. They were considered by some to be undisciplined,
unprincipled, murderous thieves who ranged around Kansas and Missouri in guerrilla
bands. It was later attributed to part of the 7th Kansas Cavalry (Jennison's
Jayhawkers). Jayhawking became a term to describe robbery, pillaging, destruction
and even murder -- often with a sporting connotation. But Jayhawking carried
no social stigma. Some prominent, influential and highly regarded leaders
were associated with Jayhawking. The term is currently used by university
sports teams in Kansas.
Glorification and misrepresentation
At first, most of the Bushwhackers were young farm boys, volunteers who wanted
to defend their homes and take revenge for things done to them and their families.
Later on, a more restless breed flocked to Quantrill's black silk banner....If
anything, plundering and murder were more important to them than were states'
rights....Attempts have been made to see the Bushwhackers and Jayhawkers as
latter-day Robin Hoods. They weren't. --Mike Wright
American Civil War
War against Terrorism
Jennison's closest Southern counterpart, sometime schoolteacher, farmer, and
gambler, William Clarke Quantrill, was a strange young man with blue eyes. Undeniably
intelligent, he formed his band of guerrilla troops around Christmas in 1861.
His was the largest and best-known band of guerrillas in the state of Missouri.
Anyone who wanted to join his band was asked just one question: "Will you follow
orders, be true to your comrades, and kill those who serve and support the Union?"
It was mustered into Confederate service in 1862, but the groups continued to
operate independently. Quantrill was 26 years old when he and his followers
sacked Lawrence, Kansas, on August 21, 1863. That dramatic attack was so deliberate,
cold and brutal that it caught the horrified imagination of the public and made
more of Quantrill than there was really was. Revenge for Union atrocities,
real or imagined, was one stimulus for the Lawrence raid. A 3-story brick
building in Kansas City was used by the Federals as a temporary prison for some
women alleged to have aided Bushwhackers.
TERRORIST THREAT (https://hosta.atsc.eustis.army.mil/cgi-bin/ atdl.dll/accp/it0468/lsn1.htm )
During the American Revolution there were isolated acts of terrorism. Some
of the groups involved included: the Torys and the American colonists who
used hostile Indian tribes against the civilian population; the "Liberty Boys"
of Georgia; Francis Marion, "The Swamp Fox" (South Carolina); and Ethan Allan
and the "Green Mountain Boys" of Vermont. A point to remember is that neither
General Washington nor the Continental Congress advocated nor condoned the
use of terrorism by the Continental Army. This is an important fact to remember,
for many modern day terrorist groups link their actions to those of the American
Revolution. In his speech of November 13, 1974, at the United Nations Assembly,
Yasir Arafat, head of the PLO terrorist group, tried to equate his murderous
organization to the American people in their struggle for liberation from
the British colonists. "If these Arabs are now being called terrorists," he
said, "those 18th Century Americans should also be classified as terrorists."
He compared himself to George Washington, the "heroic Washington whose purpose
was his nation's freedom and independence." Answering Arafat on November 21
at the same forum, the chief American delegate, John A. Scali, rejected this
equation of the historic American Revolution with the Arabs' "indiscriminate
terror." Said Scali: "There were instances during the American Revolution
where innocent people suffered, but there were no instances where the revolutionary
leadership boasted of or condoned such crimes. There were victims on both
sides but no deliberate policy of terrorism. Those who molded our nation and
fought for our freedom never succumbed to the easy excuse that the "end justifies
the means." The use of organized guerrilla and partisan groups during the
war between the States was widespread. Although not sanctioned by their respective
governments, a number of terrorist acts were committed. Groups such as the
Jayhawkers, Regulators, and Redlegs on one side and the Bushwackers and Border
Ruffians on the other side practiced terror tactics. Men such as J. H. Lane,
C. R. Jennision, W. C. Quantrell, and others, gained a great deal of notoriety
for their acts; and, in some cases, paradoxically, respectability as well.
Thomas Chittum, author of the patriotic best-selling book "Civil War 2"
The wheels are coming off the Glorious Imperial War Machine in Iraq. Our
guys are being hunted down for sport by roving bands of Iraqi bushwackers.
Terrence Daniels. Revolutionaries Oppose Terrorism 17, September 01, (text)
Edward Spannaus. This article appears in the . Military Tribunals Are Dangerous
in Ashcroft's Hands. Executive Intelligence Review, 7 December 2001 (text)
The proper conception of a military tribunal, as based in natural law, was
elaborated by Abraham Lincoln's Attorney General, James Speed, in his July
1865 "Opinion On The Constitutional Power Of The Military To Try And Execute
The Assassins Of The President." Speed stressed that "tribunals are constituted
by the army in the interest of justice and mercy, and to the effect of mitigating
the horrors of war." Speed described two categories of combatants: open, active
participants in hostilities, who wear the uniform, move under the flag, and
hold the appropriate commission from their government, and who are entitled
to all belligerent rights; and "secret, but active participants, as spies,
brigands, bushwackers, jayhawkers, war rebels, and assassins," who are subject
to military tribunals, which may try, condemn, and execute them, without a
breach of the Constitution.
Noe, Kenneth W., "Who Were the Bushwackers? Age, Class, Kin, and Western Virginia's
Confederate Guerrillas, 1861-1862," Civil War History, 49 (March 2003), 5-31.
Brophy, Patrick. Bushwackers of the Border. Nevada, MO: Vernon County Historical
McCorkle, John. Three Years with Quantrill. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma,
Trotter, William R. - Bushwackers: The Civil War in North Carolina - The Mountains
Breihan, Carl W. Quantrill and his Civil War Guerrillas. Promontory
Brant, Marley. The Outlaw Youngers, a Confederate Brotherhood. Madison
Fellman, Michael. Inside War, the Guerrilla Conflict in Missouri During the
American Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1989.
SPIES, SCOUTS, AND RAIDERS: IRREGULAR OPERATIONS. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life
Books, 1985. (Good source of information on "Jayhawkers" and "Bushwackers."
Guerillas-a member of a band of persons engaged in warfare not as part of a
regular army but as an independent unit making surprise raids behind enemy lines.
Missouri's pro-slavery guerillas confronted free state troopers often, to preserve
their vision of the good life. Also known as guerillas or bushwackers, the best
known pro-slavery band was led by William Quantrill. Ordinary farmers joined
Quantrill to defend their homes and their families' honor. Quantrill and his
men made many raids and participated in violent skirmishes and other fights.
A supporter of Quantrill was John McCorkle. He said,
Trow, Harrison. CHARLES W. QUANTRELL: A TRUE HISTORY OF HIS GUERRILLA WARFARE
ON THE MISSOURI AND KANSAS BORDER DURING THE CIVIL WAR OF 1861-1865. Kansas
City, MO: 1923.
Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War Book by: T. J. Stiles Manufacturer:
Knopf List Price: $27.50 - Our Price: $19.25 Media: Hardcover Release Date:
17 September, 2002
Probably no American outlaw has attracted more attention--much of it flattering--than
Jesse James. This revisionist biography by T.J. Stiles delves into the exciting
life James led--"a tale of ambushes, gun battles, and daring raids, of narrow
escapes, betrayals, and revenge." Yet it also places James within a specific
political context, showing why it was possible for this murderous bandit to
emerge as a folk hero among Southern sympathizers following the Civil War
(in which he fought as a teenager). James is often grouped with famous frontier
criminals like Billy the Kidd and Butch Cassidy, but he's best understood
as a Southerner who forged partisan alliances in postwar Missouri and promoted
himself as a latter-day Robin Hood. Stiles describes James as "a foul-mouthed
killer who hated as fiercely as anyone on the planet" and places his life
in the context of "the struggle for--or rather, against--black freedom." Stiles's
fundamental point about James is as startling as it is convincing: "In his
political consciousness and close alliance with a propagandist and power broker,
in his efforts to win media attention with his crimes ... Jesse James was
a forerunner of the modern terrorist." Tough words, but also deserved. --John
J. Miller Violentization? JESSE JAMES, LAST REBEL OF THE CIVIL WAR takes its
subject seriously. There are sixty-nine pages of footnotes, sixteen pages
of bibliography. This is not your conventional biography. Stiles theorizes
that James was not the Robin Hood kind of brigand, stealing from the rich
and giving to the poor, he's been made out to be by innumerable Hollywood
movies and TV shows. Rather he was a product of the bushwacker guerrillas
who ravaged Missouri during the Civil War and he kept at it right up until
his death in 1882. Stiles also maintains that James was a political outlaw
in that part of his purpose was to unseat the Radical Republicans who governed
Missouri after the Civil War. Stiles equates James to the modern terrorist.
Quite a bit of the book is devoted to Jesse's relationship with John Newman
Edwards, a newspaper editor and "voice of the Confederate wing of the Democratic
Party in Missouri." Edwards extolled the James gang as rebel heroes, compares
them to "men who might have sat with Arthur at the Round Table, ridden at
tourney with Sir Launcelot or worn the colors of Guinevere." He also edited
and published Jesse's letters ridiculing the Radical Republicans and President
Bushwhackers and Jayhawkers: Uncivil Missouri and Kansas (text)
For the five years before the Civil War, residents of the neighboring states
of Missouri and Kansas waged their own civil conflict, one that was characterized
by unrelenting and unparalleled brutality. Both sides were lined up along
the border, ready to fight for race. War is about armies on the battlefield,
but this was personal. More than anywhere else in the nation, the conflict
raging in Missouri and Kansas was truly a civil war, whose wounds were a long
time in healing.
Partisans, Guerillas, Irregulars and Bushwhackers "The Truth Behind The Names".
The Missouri Partisan Ranger, 1995 (text)
Bloody Bill Anderson-His Impact on the Civil War in Johnson County, Missouri.
During the Civil War, Johnson County was a very bloody place. Confederate
men who got mad when somebody disagreed with them would quickly join a gang
of bushwackers to intimidate people into agreeing with them. These bushwackers
would rob, burn and trash whole neighborhoods and towns. They would then proceed
to rob, kill, mutilate and even scalp innocent men andwomen. Some bushwackers
weren't that ferocious, but a couple of bushwackers stand out in history as
being particularly blood-thirsty. One of those men was Bloody Bill Anderson.
Beatty, Patricia. Jayhawker.
Cordley, Richard. The Lawrence Massacre.
Schultz, Duane. Quantrill's War : The Life and Times of William Clarke Quantrill
Wright, Mike. What They Didn't Teach You About the Civil War.
Brownlee, Richard S. Gray Ghosts of the Confederacy, Guerrilla Warfare in the
West, 1861-1865. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1958.
Edwards, John N. Noted Guerrillas, or the Warfare of the Border. Dayton, OH:
Morningside Bookshop, 1877, 1976.
Bushwackers of the Border Vernon Co. Historical Society
In justification of the destruction of the property of ex-Governor Letcher,
it is said, whether truly or falsely I can not say, that the form of a hand-bill
was found in a printing (end of page 597) establishment in Lexington, bearing
Letcher's name, and urging the bushwhacking of Federal soldiers; and, further,
that his house was occupied by concealed sharpshooters, who fired upon some
of General Hunter's men.
The Great Invasion of 1863; or, General Lee in Pennsylvania (Excerpts) By:
Jacob Hoke (text)
The policy of the commanders of the Federal armies operating in the Shenandoah
Valley had been humane and lenient, notwithstanding the evils complained of,
but when General Hunter succeeded to the command in that place, he adopted a
different policy. From the time he assumed command in that department he gave
evidence that he had decided convictions as to how to deal with such inveterate
haters of the Union. He was convinced that the mild and lenient course pursued
by his predecessors had only em- (end of page 598) boldened them in their unwarranted
methods, and he determined to adopt a retaliatory policy. Guerrillas and bushwhackers,
whose depredations had heretofore gone unpunished, were now notified that their
claim to be in the regular Confederate service, under which they claimed exemption
from the summary punishment inflicted upon irregular and unorganized soldiers,
would no longer avail them. He accordingly issued and circulated the following
HEAD-QUARTERS OF WEST VIRGINIA, - IN THE FIELD. Valley of the Shenandoah, May
Sir - Your name has been reported to me with evidence that you are one of
the leading secessionist sympathizers in the valley, and that you countenance
and abet the bush-whackers and guerillas who infest the woods and mountains
of this region, swooping out on the roads to plunder and outrage loyal residents,
falling upon them and firing into defenseless wagon-trains and assassinating
soldiers of this command, who may chance to be placed in exposed positions.
These practices are not recognized by the laws of war of any civilized nation,
nor are the persons engaged therein entitled to any other treatment than that
done by the universal code of justice to pirates, murderers, and other outlaws.
But from the difficulties of the country, the secret aid and information
given to these bush-whackers by persons of your class, and the more important
occupation of the troops under my command, it is impossible to chase, arrest,
and punish these marauders as they deserve. Without the countenance and help
given to them by the Confederate residents of the valley, they could not support
themselves for a week. You are spies upon our movements, abusing the clemency
which has protected your persons and property, while loyal citizens of the
United States, residing within the Confederate lines, are invariably plundered
of all they may possess, imprisoned, and in some cases put to death. It is
from you and your families and neighbors, that these bandits receive food,
clothing, ammunition and information, and it is from their secret hiding-places
in your houses, barns and woods, that they issue on their missions of pillage
You are therefore hereby notified, that for every train fired upon, or soldier
of the Union wounded or assassinated by bush-whackers in any neighborhood
within the reach of my command, the houses and other property of every secession
sympathizer residing within a circuit of five miles from the place of the
outrage, shall be destroyed by fire, and that for all public property jayhawked
or destroyed by these marauders, an assessment of five times the valve of
such property will be made upon the secession sympathizers residing within
the circuit of ten miles around the point at which the offense was committed.
The payment of this assessment will be enforced by the troops of this department,
who will sieze [sic] and hold in close military custody the persons assessed,
until such payment shall have been made. This provision will also be applied
to make good from the secessionists in the neighborhood five times the amount
of any loss suffered by loyal citizens of the United States, from the action
of the bush-whackers whom you may encourage.
If you desire to avoid the consequences herein set forth, you will notify
your (end of page 599) guerilla and bush-whacking friends to withdraw from
that portion of the valley within my lines, and to join, if they desire to
fight for the rebellion, the regular forces of the secession army in my front
or elsewhere. You will have none but yourselves to blame for the consequences
that will certainly ensue if these evils are permitted to continue. This circular
is not sent to you for the reason that you have been singled out as peculiarly
obnoxious, but because you are believed to furnish the readiest means of communication
with the prominent secession sympathizers of your neighborhood. It will be
for their benefit that you communicate to them the tenor of this circular.
D. HUNTER, Major-General Commanding.
In 1857 Marion County residents bore witness to the Mountain Meadow Massacre,
the horror of which was merely a forerunner to the events which followed the
1 June 1861 adoption by the State Legislature (by a 1-vote majority) of he Constitution
of The Confederate States - the Civil War. This was probably the very worst
time in the entire history of the area. For four long years, Marion County was
a "divided" place - brother against brother, neighbor against neighbor. Although
there were no actual battles fought in Marion County, there were many war-related
deaths. At one time or another, either a Union or a Confederate Post was located
in Yellville - both with hospitals, enlistment centers, and regimental headquarters.
Simultaneously Bushwackers, Jayhawkers, and just plain renegades ran rampant
throughout the area, threatening, stealing, burning, terrorizing, murdering,
and torturing everyone and everything. Many families left Marion County, most
traveling to Missouri, seeking both food and safety. Before the Civil War there
were 922 families in Marion County; by 1870 there were only 750. By 1880 the
population had grown slightly, but there was no major increase until the mining
era of 1890 through 1920.
Marion County Families 1811-1900 (permission by Vicki Roberts and Mysty McPherson)
Ride with the Devil 1999 (2000) - Universal
Based on Daniel Woodrell's 1987 novel Woe to Live On, Ang Lee's Ride with the
Devil tells the story of a young man named Jake Roedel (Tobey Maguire), growing
up on the frontier of America during the Civil War. While the Union and Confederate
armies battle fiercely in the East, Missouri seems an unlikely place for conflict.
But the war is starting to become personal for a lot of young men like Jake.
With no army to join, loyalists on both sides of the issue at hand are forming
their own armed militias to fight each other - the Jayhawkers allied with the
North and the Bushwackers with the South. Jake and his friend Jack Bull Chiles
(Skeet Ulrich) grew up as Southerners, but have no particularly strong feelings
about slavery, right or wrong. Their fear is simply that their friends and neighbors
- their people - are coming under attack. That fear is born out when a band
of Jayhawkers kills Jack Bull's father in a raid one night. To revenge his death,
the two run away and join the Bushwackers. But the thing about these militias,
is that anyone can join. So in addition to those who want revenge or believe
in the cause, you've got men who just like killing. It doesn't matter who -
anyone who gets in the way will do. And once revenge has been had, there's only
a hollow feeling left and only so much killing you can witness.
Bushwacker Story Compiled by Arminta Smith (text
General Halleck, commander in Missouri declared if the Bushwackers were caught,
they would not be treated as prisoners of war, but would be hung like robbers
and murderers. So Quantrill was declared an outlaw by the Federal authorities,
but when the Bushwhackers found out about this order they started shooting every
Yankee they could find. Quantrill traveled to Richmond to speak to President
Davis about his rank, and he returned as a Colonel, but others say he just called
himself a Colonel and was not given an appointment. When he returned the whole
Confederate department had been reorganized and general Ewing was now in command.
Quantrill said, "Ewing may command the district, but I run the machine." And
his Bushwackers raided right under Ewing's nose, and George Todd even took a
captive Union man along with him and then sent him to Ewing to be a witness.
All this happened as Robert E. Lee crossed into Pennsylvania, sweeping along
the road toward Gettysburg. During this winter 1862-3, Quantrill's raiders acted
as scouts for the Missouri Brigade, which was part of the Calvary Unit under
the command of General John S. Marmaduke. (Marmaduke was a West Point graduate
and son of wealthy parents. His father served as governor of Virginia). But
he was a man that could not be trusted; he served in Johnston's Army in the
Utah expedition, and then resigned his position to follow Johnston into Confederate
service. Those Bushwackers were as reckless and picturesque riders as ever cinched
a saddle. Most of them grew long hair, had beards, goatees, or mustaches and
long sideburns. They favored round-brimmed hats and tucked their baggy pants
into high-topped cavalry boots. When not wearing a regular shirt of gray or
brown, he sported a "guerilla shirt" knitted by his wife, or sweetheart, decoratively
embroidered and had many pockets for bullets. Two or four revolvers were stuck
into his holster and wider leather belts, often with another 4 guns on his horse.
These men benefited from the support of the citizens. Many of the Missourians
looked upon them as saviors and protectors, but not for long. The majority was
scared to death of them and lived in constant fear of their appearance. Quantrill
fell in love with Sarah (Kate) Kings, who embroidered his shirts. Old timers
who knew her said she was pretty beyond question. He surely kept her in diamonds
by all his looting. Quantrill called his captains for a conference and outlined
plans for the greatest raid of the war. Lawrence, Kansas epitomized everything
the south despised in the North. Its New England reformers, its widely circulating
newspapers had roused the nation with abolition propaganda for seven years.
Quantrill's captains listened sullenly, and they rode away without agreeing
on any plans. Then an accident happened and the situation changed; they felt
they needed to get some revenge. In the campaign to stamp out bushwhacking,
many women had been arrested on their homesteads for sheltering guerillas. The
prisoners included three sisters of Bloody Bill Anderson's, the Munday girls,
Martha and Sue, and Jesse James's mother and sister had also been taken from
their home by the Union soldiers. Most of the disloyal women were incarcerated
at Kansas City in an old brick building. The first floor contained stores. The
second floor, where the girls were imprisoned, was reached by an outside stairway
at the rear. The country girls noticed that some of their fellow prisoners were
women of bad character--Quantrill spies, too--and refused to speak to them. When
Ewing assumed command, he made it a point to treat them all with consideration,
so the prostitutes roomed by themselves. All were allowed playing cards and
musical instruments. The Munday and Anderson girls all sent home for their own
bedding. Those who would pledge their word not to escape were permitted to go
downstairs, under guard, and visit the store.