Significance of the World System Concept
- / -
Section of Report
of a Preliminary Investigation of the Possibility of Using Computer Data
Processing Methods (1968): a summary of the various parts of
this report, and details
of its contents (with links to the various
parts), are provided separately
Confusion created by use of 'international'
Horizontal and vertical relationships
Characteristics of organizations
Lack of coordination in studies of aspects of
the world system
Attempts at a coordinated approach
Need for "balanced emphasis"
Comment on the classification system
Importance of blurring between categories
Different meanings of local organization in different societies
Informal organizations, meetings, agreements, information
Relationship between formal and informal organizations
Points arising from the
Importance of sub-national links
International not necessarily best
One type of organization not necessarily best
Features not considered
Conclusion on classification scheme
Relationships between different types of organizations
Importance of the individual
Comment on the relationship between functions
It is difficult to locate descriptions of the emerging
Verry few disciplines consider it useful to do so. It is not useful
employ the concepts of past Utopians. It is more relevant to use
such concepts as the following:
"The world society includes a bewildering variety of sub-systems increasingly locked together in conflict cooperation relationships. The
world policy is characterized by polycentric conflict, intersecting co.itions, continuing outbreaks of localized violence, many possibilities
of escalation, and spreading capacities for nuclear destruction. The
political instrumentalities of conflict resolution and regional and
world integration operate as in nations, states and cities in an
atmosphere of pressure and power politics, behind-the-scene lobbying,
rotten borough representation, moralistic double-talk, deception and
self-deception. The world culture, on the one hand, tends to submerge national characteristics and values in a homogenizing flood of
material goods and international styles. On the other hand, it includes
vast value differences and sharp value conflicts. Like Megalopolis,
the world society is a territorial entity without a government. It is
an all-inclusive complex macro-system with remarkably complicated
unpredictable although increasingly structured mechanisms of mutual
adjustment." (Gross, B., Al,p. 359)
This conceptualization emphasizes the dynamic nature of the system.
It does not attempt to classify the features of the system. These
features include government agencies, international federations,
business enterprises, local associations, etc. (see Exhibit
1a, 1b, 1c and 1d). These
bodies and related structures must be described in some detail before
the dynamic relationships suggested by the above conceptualization can
usefully explored without giving undue importance to particular
organizations. This section provides a descriptive classification of
the majorgroups of organizations involved. In the next
relationship between these groups is briefly mentioned.
Confusion Created by Use of 'International'
The major difficulty in understanding the many types of sructures and
interrelationships within the world system is the considerable
complexity of individuals, groups and formal organizations.
In order to stress this complexity, the term 'world system' has been
used. The meaning of 'system' is explained in Exhibit
is used to avoid some of the current confusion arising from the wide
use of 'international' in different contexts. 'International' is a
political science concept which emphasizes the division of the world
into states. Current use of 'international' tends to be associated
with a number of traditional political sciences concepts and assumptions dating from the nineteenth century (for complete list, see
Scott, A., A3). These include:
- an implicit stress on the importance of nationalism and
inter-state official relations
- relegation of other forms of organization to a secondary
status, and lack of stress on the complex forms of organization which build up from the local level. These
complement and interact with the government structure, and cross the
national level in a variety of ways to interact at a number of different
levels above it.
The disadvantage of the emphasis on international as meaning interstate, is that it leads people into "the elementary error of identiing the state with the whole hierarchy of social institutions"
(Laski, H.J.,A6, p. 29).
Although unintentionally, this has swung
thewhole political science research emphasis onto intergovernmental
organizations, whilst effectively ignoring other possible interactions
between nations and their citizens (for an exception to this see
The traditional attitude has taken for granted that only nation-states
could be significant actors upon the
international scene. Nothing in
the established outlook prepares its adherents for the emergence of
new types of organization and none of the accepted categories or processes
can adequately explain their emergence (Scott, A., A3. p. 4).
The impermeable nation-state is now penetrated by the activities
international organizations. It is frequently penetrated by the
activities of other nation-states. In fact, though not in theory,
great many nation-states are now highly porous. Nations today are
not sovereign, in the meaningful sense of that term, are not selfcontained, and are not impermeable. This statement is true for all
nations but is startlingly apparent in the case of the newer nations
which need assistance almost from the moment of birth. (Scott, A.
Horizontal and Vertical Relationships
The points above stress some of the new meanings to be attached to
international relations between nations. They can be described as
horizontal relationships. The above points do not stress vertical
relationships which also exist. "An international system...is defined to include a variety of actors, from individuals to nations to
international organizations of both the governmental and non-governmental kinds". (Smoker, P., A7,p. 61) Here an individual is
considered only in terms of his role at the international level. His
role, and that of organizations at the local or national, regional
level, is not explicitly considered to have repercussions within the
Each type of organization exists and interacts at the international
level, but each of these types has to have supporting members at
the national level. Support at the national level requires support
at the local level and finally support by the individual as the basic
unit of human organization.
The 'world system' therefore includes both the international system
and the complex grouping of organizations which exist within and
make up each national system. The national-system, can also be
viewed at different levels regional, state, county and local subsystems. This complexity is important to correct understanding. It
is almost completely obscured by a sweeping focus on the 'international'
The term 'system' is used, rather than organization or society, to
stress that information on all aspects of an organization and its
associated features is coordinated. A general systems model attempts
to integrate concepts from all disciplines relevant to an understanding of a complex social system, (see Exhibit
Characteristics of Organizations
The organizations forming part of the world system can be grouped by
combinations of various characteristics. These include: purpose,
legal status (governmental or non-governmental; corporate or noncorporate), membership (who and on what basis), methods of operation
(manual; academic; computerized; etc.), size, continuity of activity
(irregular meetings; round the clock operations). The first three
are usually found in the formal charter of the organization (Gross, B.
Informal organizations, treaties and information systems are other
important features of the world system. They are complementary to
the above organizations. They are described in detail below.
Lack of Coordination in Studies of Aspects of the World System
Confronted with the maze of formal organizations, each discipline
been forced to define and concentrate on particular groups or forms
interaction. There have been very few attempts at relating research
the organizations so defined across discipline boundaries (Scott, A.,
In some cases tradition is against any form of overview. Treaties,
example, are the essential precondition for the existence of many intereweramental
organizations. From the orthodox legal point of view, however, tradition
is against a world-view of treaties. Treaties as a class
carry no meaning or message so that the totality of all the world's
is a meaningless concept in international law (Rohn, P., A8).
In the case of international organizations in general, one author makes
the content that "The growth and development of organisational theory
its concomitant research growth have not been paralleled by a similar
growth in either research or understanding of the total spectrum of
international organizations. This has been in part due to the basic
assumptions and orientations of the scholars working in this field....
The result has been a disparate set of developments with little attempt
at an overview of the totality of international interaction taking place
today, and with only preliminary attempt to link this with general organizational theory.....It seems evident therefore, that there is a great
need for systematizing, classifying, and empirical testing of propositions related to the total field of international interaction." (Rosenberg, A., A9,p. 721-3; for related complaints, see Smoker, P.,AlC,p.
Miles, E.A11 ; Codding, Jr., G.A..A12).
Unfortunately, this writer then goes on to produce an extremely interesting preliminary taxonomy of international organizations without attempting
to blend this into a classification of organizations at other geographical levels.
The situation is made clear in Exhibit
1b, which indicates that different
disciplines have dealt mainly with particular features of organizations,
or with particular types of organizations, or with organizations at
different geographical levels. Exhibit
1c shows, as a specific
the results of a detailed survey in the field of organization administration. Note that the Exhibit does not indicate whether the organizations
are international, national or local. It is probably correct to assume
that it mainly refers to U.S. national and local organizations. The Exhibit shows how little comparative work has been done as a basis for relating different types of organization.
Attempts at a Coordinated Approach
The first step in obtaining a clear picture of this complexity must be
a descriptive one which attempts to reconcile definitions used by different
disciplines. One attempt at this has been made using systems analysis
by A.M. Scott (A3 ). This concentrates on developing
methods of relating
observations on nationalism, loyalty, ideology, capabilities, statecraft,
collaboration, conflict, escalation, deterence, negotiation, decisionrig, communication, community, formation, etc. It is primarily coned with all influences on the international system although it mentions
the advantage of the method in overcoming the separation between domestic
affairs and international politics. The author's examples do not distinguish clearly between all the many types of organization.
A more general attempt is being made by B.M. Gross, a political scientist
and an expert in organization administration theory. He has developed an
introductory view of the variety of social systems which can be displayed
as a table relating individuals, groups, formal organizations (associations, enterprises, government agencies) and territorial extities (governments, areas) at the local, regional, national and international level
1d). Some features of this table have been used in a descriptive classification below.
This author has however concentrated his efforts on systemsmodels at the
national level. Much of this work is applicable to the world system, as
many of his comments indicate (Gross, B.M., A4).
Unfortunately, the work of Scott and Gross has not yet been developed
into a descriptive classification of the component structures of the world
system as a whole with an equal emphasis on the horizontal features and
vertical features. Horizontally, this should include the major types of
organization (government, business, other). Vertically, this should inelude the different geographical levels (international, national, regional, local). These categories have been selected because they are
most commonly used in practical decision-making. The theoretical organization model categories are not used for this purpose.
Need for Balanced Emphasis
The reasons for which it is important to stress the need for a balanced
emphasis on all types of organizations at all levels within the world
system are the following:
for those bodies working on the problem of facilitating the
integration process at the international level, a comprehensive
context is needed for discussion of the many types of members of
international organizations. This is necessary for any adequate
treatment of problems of membership support which may be arising
at variety of sub-national levels.
- for those bodies which are attempting to promote an understanding
by national organizations and their members of the nature of the
world system, a comprehensive context is needed to show the latter
the function they perform within the system. At present communication between sub-national and national organizations, and between
national organizations and international organizations, particularly
governmental and non-governmental non-profit organizations, is a
main source of weakness. One report states that: "Communication is
generally sporadic and uncertain between the international NGO and
its national affiliates and individual members...Individual American
members, for example, appear to know very little about what their
international secretary of the American affiliate. Much the same
situation is believed to apply in other countries." (U.S. National
Commission for Unesco,A13)
Discussion of the international system as though it were identical with
the world system means that problems arising in sub-systems of the
system can only be studied indirectly in terms of their effects on the
international system, not at their point of origin, as brought out by
a comprehensive classification system.
A classification system is required with the following properties:
- that it should link all forms of organization,
business or other but not mask the many intermediate forms by rigid
- that it should show the nature of these different
at the commonly selected cut-off points used in discussion of the
world system, namely international, national, local as well as
others which are important to an understanding of the complexity
- that it it should attempt to distinguish
between conflicting uses
of aterm that are currently employed.
A preliminary descriptive attempt at producing such a system has been
made in Exhibits
2 and 2a. Notes
explaining each category are provided in Exhibit
3. Exhibit 2 attempts
to relate the principal behavioural science breakdown (formal, informal;
voluntary, ascription) to the working definition breakdown (governmental,
non-governmental), the national tax legislation breakdown (profit, non-profit).
These categories are then matched against organizations in evidence at
various cut-off points, chosen on the basis of current usage (international
organisation of international organisations, international organization,
international regional organization, bilateral international organization,
national organization with international activities, national organization
of national organizations, national organization, national regional organization,
Where possible, estimates of numbers of each type of organization
have been supplied within the Notes in Exhibit
3. Exhibit 3 also contains
comments on the overlap between terms in current use together with detailed
definitions where these are available.
2a is a more detailed development of part of Exhibit
attempts to relate the terms used to describe specific groups of organizations
within a nation in terms of the breakdown in Exhibit 2. Given more
space, Exhibit 2a could have been combined with Exhibit 2.
Comment on the Classification System
1. Importance of Blurring Between Categories
The Notes in Exhibit
3 bring out the confusion of definitions which has
developed with regard to use of such terms as international, regional,
governmental and profit even within the American literature from which
most of the references were taken. Aside from this confusion, however,
the Notes do tend to show that even when these terms are used more precisely,
there is a graduation in the organizations within a given category from
one extreme to another. This is a point which is very rarely stressed.
This comes out particularly clearly in the question of governmental control
of organizations. This could be interpreted as starting with the
cases where an organization is merely 'registered' in some way with a government
agency through to cases where the organization is completely integrated
into the government apparatus. There is also a graduation in the geographical
levels which the organization represents. Neighbourhood and community
organizations (i.e. 'local') blend gradually into two-county and
larger groupings (e.g. 'Northern', 'Eastern' multi-state organizations
in the U.S.A., i.e.'regional'). Interacting organizations are not
all represented at all levels, nor is interaction necessarily ruled by
some geographical criterion. Interaction between organizations
in the international system and organizations within the national system
may be via a wide variety of bodies which exist within the national system.
2. Mixed Organizations
Another important feature is the many different types of 'mixed'
organizations which group representatives of private and governmental organizations. These are in the middle of the continuam running from government organizations at one extreme to private organizations at the other. They include non-governmental organizations
with official governmental delegates as members, business and nongovernmental consultative organizations and business-governmental
consultative organizations. These organizations are normally ignored
in classification schemes.
3. Different Meanings of Local Organization in Different Societies
There is an important graduation from developing to industrialized
countries in the types of organization which are employed. In a
highly industrialized Western country, local associations and local
governmental bodies may have written rules of procedure. In a developing country, the organizations which perform the equivalent functions may be far looser in construction blending into informal organizations. In agricultural or pastoral societies the basic family
unit is the 'extended family'. In the most primitive societies, the
family may be the only significant organization, with large groups
composed of clusters of extended families. With the growth of social
development, other organizations come into being (governments, armies,
churches, trading groups). But families remain the dominant control
units in such organizations for a considerable time. (Gross, B.M., A4,
This point is important for bodies concerned with the formation of
national organizations from local organizations, and their collaboration with other national organizations.
4. Multi-Level Membership
A feature of the world system not brought out clearly by the classification system is the question of multi-level membership. This is
illustrated by Exhibit
. An organization at any given geographical
level may group organizations which are themselves members of other
organizations. A particular national organization may therefore be
a member of a number of other national or international organizations
(ascending vertical relationship), interact with other national organizations of comparable geographical representation (horizontal relationship), and have members from different geographical levels
which are themselves members of other national or international
organizations (descending vertical relationship). As Exhibit
shows, this complexity may exist at any geographical level. (For a
taxonomy of international organizations which incorporates multilevel membership and divides organizations according to their field
of interest, see Rosenberg, A., A9).
5. Informal Organizations, Meetings, Agreements,
The classification system was made as broad as possible in order to
incorporate other significant features of the world system, namely
meetings and agreements, which have both been previously suggested
as significant in this context. Informal organizations were included
since they complement formal organizations in organization theory.
Information systems were included to cover aspects of interaction
between parts of the world system which are not supervised directly
by any given organization. All these features are intimately related to the formal organizations on which attention is normally centred.
6. Relationship between Formal and Informal Organizations
The inclusion of these other structures brings out, as is shown in
the Notes a dynamic relationship between the various form orga
nization. This is illustrated in Exhibit
. Informal organizations
result in the assembly of information which can be used as the basis
for a meeting or a project leading to the creation of a formal organization.or agreement. This can operate in the reverse direction.
Formal organizations or agreements can instigate meetings leading to
information affecting informal organizations.
In the world, system as in any organization, it is insufficient to consider only the formal relations between members. Many informal contacts may modify formal relations. The formal structure can even be
considered as being the 'part of the iceberg that appears above water'.
The formal lines of authority can never carry the entire burden of
serving as channels of internal communication. They are therefore
supplemented by an intricate network of informal communication channels
(Gross, B., A5, pp. 239-240).
Formal organizations and agreements may
exist but if the informal structures are in opposition to them, their
operations will be less successful. For this reason, it is very important to consider the formal and informal features together.
The world, system may therefore be considered as composed of formal
interacting organizations interpenetrated and linked by agreements,
informal organizations and information systems. The latter are either
generated by the formal organizations or may give rise to them
Before a movement can crystallize into a formal organization, it
generally gives rise to such formal entities as articles clarifying
the issue, books, seminars, symposia and other meetings at various
geographical levels, resulting finally in a meeting at which a resolution is carried leading to the creation of a formal organization
(or an agreement). This is not so clearly the case with business
organizations since these tend to develop outwards from a given geographical base, absorbing or coming to agreement or merger with competitors in other areas or countries, as more fertile markets are detected.
Points arising from the Classification
1. Importance of Sub-National Links
An important point is that stimulation of international
by facilitating the formation of transnational formal links concentrates
on only one part of the whole process. It is generally acknowledged,
but usually in a different context, that effective international contacts must bebased upon an effective supporting structure within the
national system. Prom the discussion it is apparent that facilitation of any of the processes leading to the formation of organizations
at any level effectively contribute toward international integration.
It may in fact be the process of forming links within some subnational
or informal system that is the critical factor in a given country or
subject area. In which case, to concentrate attention on the formation
of atransnational formal link, would not "be the most effective method
of tackling the problem of facilitating international integration.
This then leads to international programs in which national and subnational data is considered irrelevant. The whole process of progressive integration within the world system must be born in mind before selecting the critical links which need to be facilitated within
a given field or geographical area, and the methods to be used.
2. International Not Necessarily Best
Another important point is the relationship between different forms
of organization. A regular national meeting with international participation may eventually lead to the formation of an international
organization and efforts could perhaps be made to encourage this procese. But within the world system as a whole, a national meeting of
this kind may be sufficient for the present. In other words, encouraging the formation of an international organization in this case
may represent a waste of effort since it might not lead to greater
effective integration at that particular time. The national meeting
is internationally significant here, without fulfilling certain rigid
criteria of internationally. For the same reasons, an existing natarnational organization may actually obstruct the for1Mable transnational or subnational links.
Organizations attempting to facilitate progressive integration within the world system need to develop the techniques and criteria to
determine the points where the resources to encourage this process
can best be applied under different conditions. Rigid criteria mask
many of the important elements of the process.
3. One Type of Organization Not Necessarily Best
Finally, it is not the type of organization (government, enterprises,
associations) which is critical to the effective performance of a
given function or the maintenance of a particular link within the
world system. Rigid criteria which prevent consideration of the part
played by certain classes of organization do not lead to a clear
understanding of the overall process or the best means of facilitating the integrative process.
Features not Considered
The classification scheme discussed only deals with the major structures within the world system. It does not touch upon the control
different systems and subsystems. The distribution of power and
control of the different parts of the world system has been emphasized
in political science, where much stress is placed on the role of supranational organizations. The scheme does not touch upon the performance
or effectiveness of the different subsystems. (For a recent review of
progress towards the analysis of national and general social systems
and their performance, see Gross, B.M.,A1) Finally, the scheme does not
touch upon the degree of specialization of knowledge required within
particular organizations in the performance of their functions (e.g.
an international scientific organization may not represent the most
integrated use of the discipline with which it is concerned). A completely
different classification scheme could be produced to relate organizations
using the same discipline and reflecting the division of disciplines
specialities and sub-specialities (for a recent review of progress towards the coordination and direction of activity in one discipline, see
Dedijer, S., a14).
Conclusion on Classification Scheme
The many gray areas shown up by this classification scheme indicate
that far more consideration should be given to the world system as a
dynamic system, rather than an agglomeration of organizations and their
activities. Individual organizations crystallize out of anetwork
purely informal relationships wherever sufficient consensus develops as
a result of meetings or other contacts. The organizations need to be considered as nodes of interaction within the world system. Overemphasis
on the existing definitions tends to freeze the system in the terms of
particular specialized categories, masking many important interrelationships. Many organizations and activities are ignored because they are
exceptions or borderline cases in terms of particular categories.
Relationships Between Different Types of Organizations
In order to further clarify the relationships between organizations falling
into different categories of the classification scheme, it is useful
show what function each of them performs within the world system.
'Function' is a term which can be used in a number of different ways.
It would be possible to select out those functions which particular groups
of organizations perform for the participating organizations and individuals. However, in order to show the relationship between different parts
of the system, those functions which particular groups of organizations,
as subsystems, perform for other parts of the system must be highlighted.
This is clearly a very complex matter, so that to make the point clear,
some simplification of the categories used in Exhibits
2 and 3 is necessary.
It will be assumed that the world system is made up of government, business, other organizations, and informal organizations. Their functions
will be described at the international, national and local level.
Each group of functions is performed by different types of organizations
within the world system. Functions equivalent to these are integrated
together within the basic unit of human organization, namely the individual.
An approximate subdivision of an individual's functions is therefore
included for comparison.
1. Importance of the Individual
The importance of the individual, even to those concerned with international organizations, is illustrated by the following quote. "For
the general public, the world of community organization is a newspaper phenomenon - that is, something about which the newspaper generally prints articles but which has relatively little connection with
their everyday life. The typical respondent was more concerned with
the community problems amenable to political treatment than with
those amenable to treatment through the voluntary organizations".
(Rossi, P.H., A15,p. 71).
This shows that it is necessary for international organizations to
concern themselves with individual participation in local organizations, otherwise the links between the respective national organizations will be of little significance. The quote deals with the
individual and voluntary associations. The relationship of the individual to government and business organizations also need attention.
This is illustrated by the current world-wide student debate (and its
side effects). The debate is mainly concerned with the problems of
the participation of the individual in society and his resentment of
2. Organization Functions
Completing such a study in detail would require an extensive investigation. All that has been provided here is a tentative indication of
some of the characteristic functions of each type of organization.
The functional breakdown is given in Exhibit
8. Many of the items
included in the Exhibit were selected from the books listed in the
bibliography (A and B).
8, the functions each type of organization performs for
the system of which it is a part are shown. It is also possible,
make the situation clearer, to show the functions each type of organization
performs for the other types. Exhibit
9 illustrates the
different sets of functions that have to be dealt with for each organization. These
functions, or the relevance of each organization for
the other, are listed in Exhibits
10. and 10b
These descriptive breakdowns pick out those functions which are
directly relevant to achieving and maintaining the effective integrated functioning of any local system, a national system, the international system, or the world system as a whole. The dunctions discussed are limited to those performed by particular subsystems for
the stability of the system as a whole (Exhibit
8) and those performed by other subsystems for one particular subsystem (Exhibit
No attempt has been made to discuss the functions performed for the
member as a result of membership of organizations forming part of
a particular subsystem.
3. Comment on the Relationship between Functions
The significance of these breakdowns is that the functions listed
are very seldom juxtaposed to bring out their complementarity. This
is very important because there is a long history of hostility between organizations concerned with different sets of functions, e.g.
between government and business in the U.S.A. (Gross, A.,Al6,p. 34).
Some non-profit organizations resent the competitive profit motive
of business enterprises (Hilkert, R.N.,A17,p. 154).
Many governmental officials consider NGO representatives as nuisance.
It is only be recognition of the role that each fulfils that any
stability can be given to relationships between different groups
within the world system. The business community in the United States
has been the first group to acknowledge the general importance of the
other groups. For example: "Increasingly, executives of large corporations are coming to see that, if they are to keep their own company's
sales and profits growing, and to operate in a healthy political and
social environment, it is essential to work for the stability and development of the system as a whole" (Gross, A.,Al6,p. 39).
Once the hostility between the main types of organizations is reduced, an increasing interchange of ideas and techniques is possible.
For example, the current debate on United States government agency
efficiency is being stimulated by the business community. The programs to improve government methods have benefited considerably from
the sophisticated management techniques developed by business.
A corresponding flow of ideas into the government sphere has not
taken place in many other countries. Nor have the management
techniques been adapted to international non-governmental, nonprofit organization, for example. This is a consequence of considering different types of organizations under supposedly unrelated
categories. The manner in which these tend to be used, makes it
difficult to suggest that the world system as a whole could be profitably considered as a management problem. This approach is to
some extent adopted in studies initiated by the United States military Establishment (see Kahn, H., A19). An August 1968 Unesco
Conference also considered this point