1968

Preliminary Investigation of the Possibility of Using
Computer Data Processing Methods

by the Union of International Associations (UIA)

 


This study provided the foundation for a series of initiatives through which the UIA developed its online system from 1995.
prepared by Anthony Judge in fulfillment of requirements of an MBA programme,
Graduate School of Business, University of Cape Town, 1967-68


Summary: Current data processing methods are analysed and split into four main problem areas (publication production, invoicing and addressing, research, joint operations with other organizations). Various methods of combining these, to produce an efficient mechanized solution, are considered. The preliminary conclusions are that the four problems could be treated separately using computer service bureaux. It may be possible to combine the invoicing and addressing with that of other organizations. A computer program to do this is examined. The publication problem requires further investigation but depends largely on a stable publication program. The research problem can be solved once the research queries are defined in greater detail. An Appendix examines the factors in the environment and within the organization which may affect decisions on the use of computer data processing methods.

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Extended Summary: The need for an examination of means of improving current data processing is considered.  Any improvement is shown to be dependent upon the precise objectives of the organization, particularly when data processing is mechanized. The Main Report refers to the Appendix which attempts to clarify the objectives of the organization.

The Appendix first describes in very general terms the environment of the UIA and the organizational features within it with which it is concerned. The international non-governmental, non-profit organizations in which the UIA is particularly interested, are then considered in order to identify means of classifying and evaluating these organizations. This is done as a guide to the UIA problems in selecting which organization to contact, and also as a possible means of evaluating the UIA itself.

The Appendix then analyses the UIA markets, competitors and the future of small documentation centres. The UIA policies and departments are analysed. On the basis of these analyses, the current UIA objectives are re-examined. A new set of objectives is proposed together with various specific recommendations for the improvement of UIA operations.

The Main Report then describes the current UIA information system and data processing problem areas (publication production, invoicing/addressing, research, other organizations). A range of possible solution combinations is then considered. The most appropriate solutions are then examined in more detail.

The conclusion is that separate systems for UIA publication production (computer typesetting), invoicing/addressing and research, should be investigated. A suitable invoicing/addressing system is described which could be used with other organizations. The publication production problem raises no technical problem but is highly dependent on a clear definition of the future programs. These have not yet been decided, so the problem must be investigated further at a later stage. Research poses no technical problems but requires a much clearer definition of UIA research objectives in order to permit specification of efficient programs. Further consideration should be given to improving the existing manual methods before investing in more sophisticated but less flexible solutions .


Summary of Contents

Main Report
[detailed contents] [pdf image version (3.5mb)]
Appendix
[detailed contents] [pdf image version (7.0 mb)]

Introduction
Objectives
Existing UIA Information Systems
Data Processing Equipment
Precedents in the Use of Computer Techniques by Non-Profit Organizations
Use of Data Processing Equipment by the UIA
Possible Combinations of Suitable Computer Systems
Preliminary Examination of Computer Systems
Detailed Examination of Most Appropriate Computer Systems
Recommendations and Conclusions

Environment of the Union of International Associations
Significance of the 'World System' Concept
International Non-Governmental, Non-Profit Organizations
Summary Description of the Union of International Associations

A. Analysis: external factors
B. Analysis: internal factors
C. Future activities
D. Summary of evaluation
E. Clarification of objectives and strategy
F. Recommendations

Main Report Bibliography Appendix Bibliography
Exhibits 1-41 [report] [pdf image version] 4.1mb] Exhibits 1-38e [report] [pdf image version (8.7mb)]


MAIN REPORT (Detailed Contents)
[report] [pdf image version (3.5mb)]

Introduction
Objectives
Existing UIA Information Systems

  • Documentation system
  • Retrieval system
  • Sales and distribution information system
  • Other procedures/systems
Data Processing Equipment
Precedents in the Use of Computer Techniques by Non-Profit Organizations
Use of Data Processing Equipment by the UIA
Possible Combinations of Suitable Computer Systems
Preliminary Examination of Computer Systems
  • A. UIA-Only Systems
    • Production of publications
      • 1. Production of publications without research or semi-commercial processing
        • modifications and additions
        • advantages and disadvantages
        • calendar production
        • combination of Calendar and Yearbook production
        • combination of Calendar and Bibliography production
        • combination of Bibliography and Yearbook production
        • combination of Calendar, Year book and Bibliography production
      • 2. Production of publications combined with research processing
      • 3. Production of publications combined with semi-commercial processing
    • Semi-commercial processing of UIA
      • 4. Semi-commercial processing of UIA
      • 5. Semi-commercial processing of data of organizations cooperating with UIA
      • 6. Semi-commercial processing with research processing
        • Semi-commercial processing with publication production
    • Research processing
        • Research with the production of publications
        • Research with semi-commercial processing
      • 7. Research without any other processing
    • Integrated system

  • B. UIA-FAIB Systems
    • Production of publications
      • 9. Production of publications without semi-commercial processing or research
      • 10. Production of publications with semi-commercial processing
      • 11. Production of publications with research processing
      • 12 Production of publications with research and semi-commercial processing
    • Semi-commercial processing
      • Semi-commercial processing with other processing
      • 13. Semi-commercial processing with research processing
    • Research

  • C. Other Organizations without UIA
Detailed Examination of Most Appropriate Computer Systems 34
  • Production of publications
    • Description of program (I)
    • Comparative costs
    • Description of program (II)
    • Results of discussions
    • Conclusion on publication production
  • Semi-commercial problems of the UIA
    • Description of generalized program
    • Details of system operation
      • monthly computer run
      • order processing
      • receipts
      • copies
      • publication dispatch labels
      • general mailings
      • monthly accounts and statistics
      • exceptions
    • Description of UIA specific program
    • Manual costs
    • Costs on service bureau computer
      • 1. Computer manufacturer service bureau
      • 2. Interburo
      • 3. Programma
    • Costs on classical equipment or card computers
      • 1. C.A.M.
      • 2. Fiduciaire Comptable Fiscale et Juridique
    • Comparison of costs between manual and computer systems
    • Implementation of semi-commercial processing via a service bureau
    • Advantages of semi-commercial processing for the UIA
    • Disadvantages of computer semi-commercial processing for the UIA
    • Conclusion on semi-commercial processing
  • Research processing
    • Conclusion on research processing
Recommendations and Conclusions
Main Report Bibliography


MAIN REPORT (Exhibits)
[pdf image version: all (8.7mb)]

  1. Flow chart of information through the UIA departments (pdf)
  2. Flow chart of information through the Information Unit (pdf)
  3. Present files for documentation (pdf)
  4. Processing of data for the Yearbook of International Organizations (pdf)
  5. Processing of data for the meeting bibliographies (pdf)
  6. Processing of data for the International Congress Calendar (pdf)
  7. Order-invoicing flow chart (pdf)
  8. Present files for sales and distribution department (pdf)
  9. Summary of addressograph plate indicators (pdf)
  10. Order processing and associated procedures (pdf)
  11. Summary of volumes of information processed by UIA (pdf)
  12. Summary of volumes of information retrieved by UIA (pdf)
  13. Types of computer equipment (pdf)
    • 13a Dangers in the use of computer systems (pdf)
  14. Data processing equipment used in terms of file size and activity (pdf)
  15. Note on the trends in information technology and computers (pdf)
  16. Note on use of a service bureau (pdf)
  17. Note on major data processing problem areas (omitted)
  18. Possible computer system combinations (pdf)
  19. Note on typesetting by computer (pdf)
    • 19a Example of use of correction paper tape (pdf)
  20. Example of use of computer typesetting in the composition of a two-part directory (pdf)
  21. Typical flowsheet of the computer typesetting process (pdf)
  22. Example of typed equivalent of paper tape input during computer typesetting (pdf)
  23. Examples of first and second proofs as supplied from the printer in the computer typesetting process (pdf)
  24. Example of the selection of shift and format keys present on the printout supplied by the computer (pdf)
  25. Classification of users of computer systems (pdf)
  26. Note on research and storage of information by NGOs (pdf)
  27. Use of computers by NGOs (pdf)
  28. Possible data processing facilities with computer production of publications (pdf)
  29. Special features of the I.C.T. computer typesetting software (pdf)
  30. Functions performed by the semi-commercial processing solution (pdf)
  31. General program specification for UIA/FAIB semi-commercial processing (pdf)
  32. Possible layout of general invoice/statement of account document to be produced by computer (pdf)
  33. Customer/member coding system (pdf)
  34. Instruction document for orders and payments (pdf)
  35. Instruction document for general mailings or specific calls (pdf)
  36. Instruction document for publication description card (pdf)
  37. Instruction document for currency conversion card (pdf)
  38. Instruction document for name and address cards (pdf)
  39. Instruction document for general invoice comment (pdf)
  40. Breakdown of current invoicing/addressing manual costs (pdf)
  41. I.B.M. offer on costs of semi-commercial processing (pdf)

APPENDIX (Detailed Contents)
[pdf image version (7.0 mb)]

Analysis of internal and external factors which may influence the future of the organization

Summary: The UIA environment is described in very general terms to identify the.relationships, between the many organizations with which, it. is concerned. The UIA markets and competitors, and the future of. small documentation centres, are analysed. Policies and departments of the. UIA are then evaluated in detail. Current ob­jectives are re-examined and a new set of objectives is proposed together with various specific recommendations for the improvement of UIA operations.

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Environment of the Union of International Associations
Significance of the 'World System' Concept

International Non-Governmental, Non-Profit Organizations

Summary Description of the Union of International Associations

Appendix Bibliography

Exhibits 1-38e


APPENDIX (Exhibits)
[pdf image version: all (8.7mb)]

  1. Summary of the types of organization in the world system
    • 1a Note on the meaning and significance of 'systems' (pdf)
    • 1b Levels of the world system at which a selection of disciplines are applied (pdf)
    • 1c Research studies in organizational behaviour (pdf)
    • 1d Table showing an introductory view of the variety of social systems in the world system (pdf)
  2. Classification of organizations within the world system (pdf)
    • 2a Classification of national organizations (pdf)
  3. Notes to Exhibit 2 and 2a (pdf)
  4. Relationship between non-governmental, non-profit organizations in terms of their objectives (pdf)
  5. Relationship between government, profit and non-profit organizations (pdf)
  6. Diagram showing relationship between different types of formal and informal organization (pdf)
  7. Diagram of multi-level membership possibilities between organizations at different geographical levels (pdf)
  8. Selection of functional and dysfunctional roles of organizations at different levels in the world system (pdf)
  9. Functional relevance of one type of organization to another (pdf)
  10. Selection of functions
    1. Selection of functions of other organizations relevant to business (pdf)
    2. Selection of functions of other organizations relevant to government (pdf)
    3. Selection of functions of other organizations relevant to NGOs
    4. Selection of functions of other organizations relevant to informal organizations
  11. [Omitted]
  12. Increase and field of interest of NGOs and IGOs (1860 - 1966) (pdf)
  13. Projected increases in the member of NGOs and IGOs (1966 - 2000) (pdf)
  14. Proposed classification scheme for NGOs (pdf)
  15. Evaluation of NGOs (pdf)
    • 15a Selection of ratios which could be developed for evaluation of NGOs (pdf)
    • 15b Main problems and weaknesses of NGOs (pdf)
  16. Constitution of the Union of International Associations
  17. Note on the history of the Union of International Associations (pdf)
  18. Development of membership for the period 1951 - 1967 (pdf)
    • 18a Membership and contact with membership (pdf)
  19. Activities of the Union of International associations
  20. Market sectors for publications (pdf)
  21. Analysis of Yearbook sales by country group and by type (pdf)
    • 21a Number of copies of the Yearbook sold (1953 - 1967) (pdf)
  22. Magazine subscribers and free copy circulation (pdf)
    • 22a Distribution of magazine subscribers by country group and by type (pdf)
  23. Increases in magazine subscriptions for the period 1955 - 1968 (pdf)
  24. Retention of magazine subscribers for selected countries (pdf)
  25. Magazine and subscription copy circulation (1959 - 1968) (pdf)
  26. Magazine text subject analysis (1949 - 1967) (pdf)
  27. Analysis of advertising in magazine by country group and language (pdf)
  28. Periodicals received by the UIA (pdf)
  29. Analysis of contents of current and historical organization files (pdf)
  30. Balance sheets for the period 1955 - 1967 (pdf)
  31. Income and expenditure compared for the years 1955 - 1967 (pdf)
  32. Sales, publication costs and profit for groups of publications (1955 - 1967) (pdf)
  33. Income and expenditure items as percentages of total income or expense, together with gross and net profit percentages (pdf)
  34. Recommended standards for voluntary organization financial statements in the U.S.A. (pdf)
  35. Current organization chart (pdf)
    • 35a Proposed organization chart (pdf)
  36. Change in personnel during the period 1952 - 1968 (pdf)
    • 36a Note on UIA objective as principal NGO documentation centre
  37. List of non-financial administrative and research files
  38. UIA Publications and their competitors (pdf)
    • 38a Specimen page of Yearbook supplement entries (pdf)
    • 38b Specimen page of International Congress Calendar (pdf)
    • 38c Specimen page and index from Library of Congress Calendar (pdf)
    • 38d Specimen page of TMIS Calendar and index (pdf)
    • 38e Specimen page of Bibliographical Current List entries (pdf)

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