- / -
Document has four separate annexes; conclusion and references
are in this document
[See also website of ITER-8: Cognitive Fusion Reactor]
Virtually unprecedented research resources are about to be committed to the construction of an experimental nuclear fusion reactor by an intergovernmental coalition of countries -- with significant funding via the European Union. It constitutes a major research and technological challenge designed to benefit from national experiments over the past 30 years. It is hoped to be a key step in the resolution of the foreseeable energy challenges of the planet.
The initiative described here is complementary to this project and quite distinct, although it is designed to benefit symbiotically from the creative challenges and breakthroughs in research on controlled nuclear fusion. It is focused on the challenge of engendering psychocultural energy, notably as a response to the increasing popular apathy with regard to major social projects such as the European Union. The initiative is seen as vital to sustaining the creativity, excitement, collective purpose and fun without which unlimited supplies of conventional energy are effectively meaningless to any higher quality of life. The initiative involves the enactivation of a "cognitive fusion reactor" through which individual and collective energy can be engendered. It is a coherent act of will, creativity and imagination designed to serve as an attractor for those who can engage in its processes or benefit therefrom. It builds on the integrative approaches developed over 30 years through the experimental online databases of the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential -- most recently with extensive funding from the European Union.
The following outline first clarifies the challenges of controlled nuclear fusion in contrast with those of controlled cognitive fusion. Their complementarity is then highlighted notably with respect to the toroidal dynamics considered as essential to the stability of both their respective processes -- especially to the degree that they mirror each other. The challenges of nuclear fusion are reviewed as a template of requisite variety by which the challenges of cognitive fusion can be modelled. The unconventional nature of the cognitive fusion initiative is then clarified as a higher dimensional construct -- considered as fundamental to psychosocial processes of the 21st century. The nature of the conformal, coactive "non-relationship" to other projects, institutions and people is then briefly noted.
The ITER-8 initiative described here is inspired by the allocation of resources to the design and experimental development of ITER. Conceived at an international summit in 1985, it was originally named the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (also known as the International Thermonuclear Energy Reactor) -- as a way of harnessing nuclear fusion as a peaceful power source. It has since taken the form of a Joint Undertaking under the Euratom Treaty (the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community) and has been given the name ITER International Fusion Energy Organisation (IIFEO). The experimental tokamak fusion reactor is to be constructed at Cadarache (France) with the ITER headquarters located in Barcelona (Spain). Participating countries include: China, India, Japan, Russia, South Korea, the USA-- and the counties of the European Union,
ITER: The ITER initiative is significant in that it represents one of the world's major research hopes for new sources of energy at a time when the probability of energy shortage is becoming increasingly evident. As a potentially safe, environmentally friendly and economically competitive energy source fusion has the potential to provide practically inexhaustible energy with greatly reduced levels of radioactive waste compared with fission. It is also significant because of the fundamental nature of the research required to render it viable. Such factors have justified the allocation of unprecedented research funds (only exceeded by the funding of the International Space Station). It is thereby hoped to ensure "business as usual" for the foreseeable future. The construction cost between 2006 and 2013 is expected to be up to $12 billion (10-billion-euro). If ITER is successful, a demonstration fusion power plant would be built in the mid-2030s, with the prospect of the first commercial fusion plant being created mid-century to assess economic feasibility.
ITER-8: In the spirit of complementarity basic to fundamental physics, the ITER-8 initiative outlined here is framed as a complementary approach to ITER. It seeks to benefit from every cognitive and design advance made in the construction and operation of ITER as the best of what humanity is capable in the sustainable generation and management of energy. These are understood for ITER-8 as cognitive patterns that may be of relevance as design metaphors in its elaboration of a cognitive fusion reactor and in the sustainable management of the psychosocial energies that would be thereby engendered.
In contrast to the needs for the kinds of energy available from nuclear fusion (or nuclear fission and other familiar energy sources), the following initiative relates to the fundamental need of society and individuals for another form of energy. This may be variously described as the "energy" associated with imagination, creativity, hope, fun and a sense of coherent, collective purpose -- even "the political will to change" (cf Reframing Sustainable Sources of Energy for the Future: the vital role of psychosocial variants, 2005) . This "energy" is to be contrasted with the psychosocial apathy and despair which is increasingly widespread and undermines the coherence of any other initiatives -- whether or not they benefit from the "unlimited" energy that ITER may help to provide.
What follows is the outline design of the "cognitive fusion reactor" named here as "ITER-8". This acronym stands for: Imaginal Transformation of Energy Resourcing -- Alternation Technology Enactivation. The figure 8 is appended as a reminder of:
As the name implies, ITER-8 specifically engages with the challenges of:
ITER-8 is a coherent act of will, creativity and imagination designed to serve as an attractor for those who can engage in its processes. It is expected that some of its processes will be supportive of the creativity required in the experimental development of the ITER fusion reactor at Cadarache (France).
It cannot be emphasized too strongly that ITER is considered an extremely ambitious experiment which may indeed give rise to energy at the levels hoped -- and without engendering disastrously unmanageable problems, whether envisaged or unforeseen. As an experiment it is an initiative in the face of what might prove impossible -- justified by a sense of potential. Similarly, ITER-8 is an initiative in response to what may be impossible but may indeed have enormous potential.
The technical issues presented here regarding controlled nuclear fusion may be initially omitted in preference to the subsequent discussion of controlled cognitive fusion or even of the comparison between the two forms of fusion.
Three energy sources are potentially capable of reducing the world's fossil fuel dependence: nuclear fission, nuclear fusion and solar energy:
The acronym ITER previously referred to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor or International Tokamak Experimental Reactor. The ITER Legal Entity (ILE) is now officially known as the ITER International Fusion Energy Organisation (IIFEO) which holds the license for construction of ITER. IIFEO will subsequently be responsible for the safe operation of ITER. IIFEO will be established soon after the signature/ratification of the Joint Implementation Agreement between the ITER Parties, probably late in 2006. Before then, the ITER project will continue with its International Team supported by host organizations (Max Planck IPP, JAERI, and CEA at Garching, Naka, and Cadarache respectively), and with Participant Teams provided by each negotiation participant. [more]. ITER is scheduled to power up in 2016 and will be the penultimate step towards commercial fusion power -- possibly from 2050 at the earliest.
Fusion: There is a wide variety of information explaining the fusion process (cf Fusion Power Associates; Internet Plasma Physics Education Experience - IPPEX). Theoretically this is a simple physical process: the binding of the nuclei of two similar atoms, whether it occurs in stars or in a fusion reactor:
Self-heating: For power production, the challenge is to produce a 'burning plasma' where enough ions are confined at sufficient density and temperature such that the heat from the alpha particles can maintain the plasma without significant auxiliary heating power. The burning plasma is a nearly fully-ionized gas in which the fusion power captured by the plasma keeps the plasma hot. A burning plasma is dominated by this self-heating. This condition has not yet however been achieved in a laboratory for any useful period of time.
The plasma -- the ionized gas of deuterium and tritium nuclei -- will be heated by an external source to a temperature of at least 100 million degrees centigrade. At this temperature, the deuterium and tritium nuclei begin to fuse, forming helium nuclei and neutrons. These magnetically-confined helium nuclei will then collide with deuterium nuclei in the gas, transferring some of their energy to the deuterium nuclei and heating the gas further -- the burning plasma mode. The plasma becomes self-heating -- as with a star -- and a strong external energy source is no longer necessary.
The dynamics of the self-heating are a fundamentally new and key feature studied in ITER. It would be the first magnetic confinement fusion experiment to produce burning plasma. The reaction would produce ten times the amount of external power injected into it. If successful, ITER would produce 500 megawatts of fusion power for 500 seconds or longer during each "shot" of the fusion experiment, with a repetition period of roughly 2000 seconds. In contrast, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, one of ITER's predecessors that shut down in 1997, produced a maximum of 11 megawatts for only one-third of a second. The goal of ITER is to obtain an energy gain (Q) of 10, namely to operate in a regime where the plasma heating from alpha-particles has twice the value of auxiliary heating.
Containment: In stars, as natural fusion reactors, it is the non-material gravity field that confines the plasma in a stable and long-lived configuration permitting the reactions to take place. Under the conditions required, a human-scale fusion reactor must also use a non-material container. To make the reactor small enough, it must use a much stronger force than gravity, namely the force of a magnetic field. ITER is to be an experimental magnetic confinement device of the type called a tokamak. This has a toroidal (doughnut-shaped) configuration and a strong, confining magnetic field. The tokamak configuration has been under study by fusion plasma scientists since the 1960s [more] [more]. It has proven to have the best confinement of all the configurations so far envisioned [see alternative confinement concepts: stellarator, reversed-field pinch (RFP), field reversed configuration (FRC), spheromak, levitated dipole]. In the tokamak, poloidal magnetic fields (in the direction of the doughnut's cross-section) are created primarily by a toroidal current inside the plasma itself. This combination of toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields generates an overall nested helical structure which is necessary to keep the plasma stable [image].
|Tokamak: Toroidal and Poloidal Fields|
Research challenges: Progress to practical fusion energy is currently determined by the evolution of scientific understanding of hot plasmas and by advances in certain critical technologies. Plasmas are gases in which ions and electrons are not attached as atoms or molecules, but rather move freely. Knowledge of toroidal plasma confinement is still far from being complete. The key scientific questions in fusion research concern the remaining uncertainties in the development of fusion as a source of energy. These relate to the understanding, control, and predictability of burning plasma. They include:
These questions are critical because plasma pressure compared to magnetic field pressure (termed beta) is what ensures the energy released for fusion power, and so it must be maximized. The energetic particles created by the fusion process must sustain the temperature of a fusion plasma, so the heating process must be understood and controlled. If heat escapes too quickly from a fusion plasma it will cool to too low a temperature, so the understanding of turbulence and heat transport is a critical element of fusion energy science.
The plasma must also be maintained long enough for the reactions to occur. The achievement of sufficiently good confinement of the plasma to permit useful release of energy has turned out to be far more difficult than the first fusion researchers hoped. Many important optimizations have been discovered and developed. One unavoidable way to obtain sufficient confinement is to make the plasma large. The existing large tokamak experiments typically have plasma radii of three meters. Fueled with the most reactive isotopes of hydrogen, those tokamaks demonstrated substantial release of fusion energy. For example, the world's largest tokamak, JET (Joint European Torus), obtained up to 16 megawatts of fusion reactions for just under a second. But, to sustain the plasma in these devices required additional heating that was larger. ITER will develop the technologies required for larger installations, such as large superconducting magnets, diagnostic systems, plasma control tools, and high heat flux materials.
These questions are not only scientific challenges to comprehension -- a "cognitive challenge" for humanity. Their solutions must be integrated successfully in a fusion plasma system. Thus there is an important integrative and innovative element of fusion research. The sustainable, self-consistent solution to these questions lies in a plasma whose heat content is largely sustained by its own fusion reactions, i.e., a 'burning plasma'. The most important technological issues for fusion are then:
These development needs stem from the high heat and neutron fluxes that emerge from fusion plasmas, and from the need to sustain the magnetic container with a minimum of power, as is made possible by superconducting magnets. [more]
The reactor design in the case of ITER is based on tokamak as confirmed by much research [more | more]. The plasma is heated in a ring-shaped vessel (or torus) and kept away from the vessel walls by applied magnetic fields. The basic components of the tokamak's magnetic confinement system (see diagram above) are:
toroidal field: the field produced around the torus. This is maintained by magnetic field coils surrounding the vacuum vessel. The toroidal field provide the primary mechanism of confinement of the plasma particles.
poloidal field; the field produced around the plasma cross section. It pinches the plasma away from the walls and maintains the plasma's shape and stability. The poloidal field is induced both internally, by the current driven in the plasma (one of the plasma heating mechanisms), and externally, by coils that are positioned around the perimeter of the vessel.
Reservations: A range of reservations and criticisms have been formulated (cf E. Mazzucato, Why build ITER? 2003; David Montgomery, Possible Gaps in ITER's Foundations, Physics Today, February 2006; Raymond Sené, Iter, techniquement c'est que du bluff! Gazette Nucléaire 211/212, janvier 2004; Mark Peplow, Fusion power gets slammed, March 2006; Warren D. Smith, Why "The Dream of Unlimited Cheap Fusion Power" is a Load of Horseshit, Oct 2000):
As argued by Jo Lister and Henri Weisen (What will we learn from ITER? Europhysics News March/April 2005):
ITER is nonetheless a noble cause, even though its main motivation stems from our increasingly urgent quest for sustainable energy. The nobility resides equally in the physical understanding to be acquired of the complexity of plasmas and in the technical challenges to be met. The requirements for controlled nuclear fusion are potent drivers for advances in physics and technology. This quest has also brought a harvest of fundamental knowledge in physics, in such complex areas as turbulence, magnetohydrodynamics and even material sciences, with implications for apparently unrelated areas such as astrophysics, space physics and industrial plasmas, spawning applications ranging from plasma processing to space propulsion systems, the development of novel materials and superconductors.
What meaning can be associated with any notion of "cognitive fusion"?
Cognitive fusion in practice: It is appropriate to note a range of situations under which some form of "cognitive fusion" might be said to take place:
A variety of initiatives have endeavoured to gather together the best and the brightest, under perfect conditions, in order to elicit creative collective responses -- possibly to the conditions of the planet. Examples include: Mensa International, Collective Wisdom Initiative, Project Mind Foundation, collective intelligence (Collective Intelligence, Community Intelligence, swarm intelligence, etc), indigenous "wisdom keepers", interfaith dialogues, etc
Contemporary research: As might be expected, the focus of contemporary research is on two totally contrasting, if not mutually contradictory, understandings of "cognitive fusion":
In some contexts, the bidirectional nature of verbal relations is such that verbal stimuli and their referents fuse together or become functionally inseparable. These contexts are called contexts of literality, and the effect is called cognitive fusion. .... Paradox is an important component of ACT because it is believed that it helps to break down the literality of language, loosens the cognitive fusion in verbal relations, and weakens rule governance when it is not useful. (see also Steven C. Hayes, et al Acceptance and Commitment Therapy - An Experiential Approach to Behavior Change, 2003).Within this framework, therapeutic emphasis is on achieving "cognitive defusion". Steven C. Hayes and Chad Shenk (Operationalizing Mindfulness Without Unnecessary Attachments, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 2004, pp. 249-254, 2004] note, in the case of "cognitive fusion", that for therapists its "excesses are what mindfulness helps rein in". They argue:
There are scientific advantages to defining mindfulness in terms of the psychological processes involved. Doing so, however, necessarily uncouples mindfulness from any given technology, including meditation. Defining mindfulness in terms of the self-regulation of attention and a posture of acceptance seems progressive, but there are underlying philosophical attachments in the proposed definition that might limit its applicability if they are treated too rigidly.This understanding of mindfulness is clarified elsewhere by Lindsay Fletcher and Steven C. Hayes (Relational Frame Theory, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and a Functional Analytic Definition of Mindfulness, Journal of Rational Emotive and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy):
Relational Frame Theory is described to show how human suffering is created by entanglement with the cognitive networks made possible by language. Mindfulness can be understood as a collection of related processes that function to undermine the dominance of verbal networks, especially involving temporal and evaluative relations. These processes include acceptance, defusion, contact with the present moment, and the transcendent sense of self.... Thoughts are often experienced indirectly - in the form of the change in the functions of the world they produce - rather than as a process occurring in the moment. This is termed 'cognitive fusion'. It has three important side effects relevant to the topic at hand.
First, temporal and evaluative relations become attached to internal events, and people begin to predict, fear, and attempt to regulate and avoid their own thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations even when that process is harmful. This is termed 'experiential avoidance' (Hayes et al., 1996).
Second, people become attached to their own self-descriptions and seek to maintain them and to be right about them.
Third, the present moment disappears into a cacophony of human thinking and its reasons, explanations, and justifications for behavior. The effect of these processes is 'psychological inflexibility' which is the inability to persist or change behavior in the service of chosen values.
... situations such as those encountered in the management of a battlespace, surveillance of complex technological systems, and mobilization of countermeasures in real-time emergency situations in health care and homeland security applications. These applications involve a large number of dynamic objects that change their state in time, and are engaged in complex spatio-temporal relations. From the management viewpoint it is important to understand the situations in which these objects participate, to recognize emerging trends and potential threats, and to undertake protective actions that lead to predefined goal situations. Although information fusion has been in the focus of intensive research, particularly in the defense community, our approach emphasizes two important aspects of information fusion, cognitive information processing and fusion of information in dynamic real-time situations. We define Cognitive Fusion as a process of multi-source data fusion, where a qualitatively new meaning is assigned to the fused data. We associate three basic functional qualities with Cognitive Fusion: (i) Situation Awareness (ii) Decision Awareness (iii) Knowledge Awareness
The contrasts between these two areas of research, "psychopathology" and "enhanced decision-making", usefully exemplify the challenge of global society. On the one hand there is a high and increasing degree of "cognitive confusion", and on the other there is pressure for higher order forms of decision-making in response to complexity. It is regrettable that the needs for the latter are perceived by researchers primarily in terms of support for battlefield situation awareness.
"Conceptual blending": In contrast to research on "cognitive fusion", seemingly unrelated research focuses on "conceptual blending" or "conceptual integration" (cf typology in Line Brandt, Conceptual Integration, 2002). According to this new theory of cognition, elements and vital relations from diverse scenarios are "blended" in a subconscious process, which is assumed to be ubiquitous to everyday thought and language. Insights obtained from these blends constitute the products of creative thinking. The theory was developed from 1993 by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner (Conceptual Integration and Formal Expression, 1995; The Way We Think: conceptual blending and the mind's hidden complexities, 2002) with more recent contributions of Seana Coulson and Todd Oakley (cf Conceptual Blending: Representation, Principles, Processes, 2006) [resources | resources]. The theory is partially based on basic ideas on the role of metaphor advanced by George Lakoff (Women Fire and Dangerous Things, 1990) and his work with Mark Johnson (cf Philosophy in the Flesh : the embodied mind and its challenge to western thought, 1999). As noted by Turner:
Conceptual blending has a fascinating dynamics and a crucial role in how we think and live. It operates largely behind the scenes. Almost invisibly to consciousness, it choreographs vast networks of conceptual meaning, yielding cognitive products, which, at the conscious level, appear simple. Blending is governed by uniform structural and dynamic principles and by optimality constraints. The theory of conceptual blending has been applied by scores of researchers, in cognitive neuroscience, cognitive science, psychology, linguistics, music theory, poetics, mathematics, divinity, semiotics, theory of art, psychotherapy, artificial intelligence, political science, discourse analysis, philosophy, anthropology, and the study of gesture and of material culture. [more]
The relations between conceptual blending, web interfaces and the future of the semantic web are now matters of active interest as summarized by Werner Kuhn (Why Information Science needs Cognitive Semantics - and what it has to offer in return, 2003)
Ritual magic: One of the pioneers of conceptual blending theory has pointed to its relationship to the widespread traditional practices of ritual and magic (Gilles Fauconnier: Magical Rituals and Conceptual Blending, 2003):
A basic hypothesis in this book is that ritual in general and magical rituals in particular involve conceptual blending. The blending theory has so far mostly been concerned with linguistic and artistic expressions and the theoretical and methodological problems raised by this material. I propose an extension of the model to cover a very broad range of perceptual modalities united in a solidified conceptual domain of 'ritual'... At a general level, religious and magical rituals involve a blended space consisting of elements projected from input spaces themselves created by elements from two general domains, a 'sacred' and a 'profane' domain, and structured by a ritual frame.... it is crucial to recognise that the sacred domain is not a logical consistent system of representations, but rather a formation of coherent structures around pragmatic styles like narratives and rituals, preestablished conceptual clusters, and modes of behavioural interaction, like prespecified ritual actions.
The cognitive fusion sought through the practice of magic has been described as follows (Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential):
Magic is a set of methods for arranging awareness according to patterns; it is not a truth or a religion. Nor is it even a philosophy, in the strict sense of the word, although there are echoes of profound philosophy in most magical traditions. It is basically an artistic science in which the practitioner controls and develops imagination to cause changes in the outer world. The serious application of magical methods leads to transformation and it is the transformation which is of value and not the methods themselves. All magic derives from controlled work with the imagination. Magic does not work because its propositions are essentially real or true; it works because practitioners become imaginatively involved in these propositions. Thus for controlled periods of time under non-habitual circumstances, they behave as if they were true. It is not a question of becoming habituated to falsehood but rather of the magician growing through the patterns, whether true or not, and emerging beyond them into a clarity of awareness that was not possible before the experience of transition and transformation...
A major premise of magic is that access may be obtained to many worlds or worldviews. The transformations which occur within the magician enable access to such inner worlds of consciousness in ways which transcend the limitations of purely intellectual endeavour or the inspirations of folklore. Images are deliberately evoked and cultivated as part of this process. Initially magic alters the focus or area of attention, drawing the vital; energies together with the discipline of a tradition and its restricting vessel or matrix. In a second stage the energies are redirected and gradually amplified through attuning to richer, more complex and more encompassing patterns. These integrative patterns have a resonant effect on the psyche. They may take the form of simple symbols, or may be imaginatively recreated as complex scenes, beings or other patterns. As such they may be used to focus and direct a wide spectrum of personal and group energies on many levels of awareness. In a third stage, the awareness having been attuned to various patterns normally inaccessible to everyday consciousness, begins to operate in other worlds or dimensions through the effect of the magical patterns and key symbols. Finally the practitioner is projected into the alternative worlds of experience, often with considerable energy (cf R J Stewart. Living Magical Arts: imagination and magic for the 21st century, 1987, Advanced Magical Arts: visualisation, mediation and ritual in the Western magical tradition, 1988)
Fundamental to the cognitive fusion associated with ritual magic is the centuries-old "theory of correspondences", or "system of correspondences", that is closely associated with symbolism (cf The Magical Art of Correspondences, 1995). In alchemy a general system of synchronistic correspondences between planets, colours, herbs, minerals, species of animals, signs and symbols, parts of the body, astrological signs, etc. was known as the Doctrine of Signatures. [more]
Fusion in the arts: The concept of "fusion" in relation to the arts is used with respect to efforts to blend together art forms, mediums, and genres. Also known as polyaesthetic art, it combines the aesthetics of more than one artform: conceptual art, visual poetry, mathematics and art, performance poetry etc. Fusion art has survived as a category for decades despite being underappreciated (and therefore underexhibited) [more].
As implied above, the fusion arts may "coopt" the sciences (as a form of art) in some way. This is illustrated by the The Bridges Conference: Mathematical Connections in Art, Music, and Science organized by the Institute of Education and the London Knowledge Lab. Created in 1998, and running annually since, it brings together practicing mathematicians, scientists, artists, educators, musicians, architects, writers, computer scientists, sculptors, dancers, weavers, model builders. In his introduction to an exhibition, Fusion: Art and Science, Peter Richards (What if..?, 1999) usefully clarifies some fundamental commonalities of attitude relevant to the relation between ITER and ITER-8:
Doubt, not knowing, playful experimentation, and the excitement of finding out something, is at the heart of both doing science and making art. Throughout history, particularly from the age of enlightenment on, discoveries made by artists and scientists have provided a base for examining the relationship between nature and culture. Things these two disciplines share in common, and also share with children, are playful exploration, experimentation, and the testing of intuitions. These kinds of activities precede and are germane to all scientific and artistic creation and are crucial to the process that children use to establish themselves as individuals. Scientists move from playful, investigative actions to making statements about nature with some degree of certainty. Artists play with an idea, a material, a found object, etc., and then move forward with the intent of expressing or communicating a sense of the human experience in relation to nature. Children, using their powers of curiosity in finding their own place in the world, apply a process of gradually accumulating experiences, insights and understandings. All are operating, if I may be so bold, from a standpoint of not knowing and are continually asking themselves: 'What if..?' The physicist Richard P. Feynman proffered that: 'If you know that you are not sure, you have a chance to improve the situation.'
The concept of fusion is well-recognized in music in several contexts:
The above approaches have been accompanied by the emergence of:
In all such cases a key question is the nature of the "fusion" sought and achieved beyond the claims made. At its smplest level, fusion may involve no more than the juxtaposition of modes with a degree of mututal borrowings. One way of looking at the distinctions to be made is in terms of the various degrees of interdisciplinarity as explored elsewhere (Varieties of Decision-making Arenas and Styles, 1991; Varieties of Dialogue Arenas and Styles, 1990; Typology of 12 complementary strategies, 1998).
Synaesthesia: The term synaesthesia is normally used to indicate a condition in which the stimulation of one sensory modality gives rise to an experience in another modality. This may be understood as a form of cognitive fusion. In an auditory synaesthete, for example, an auditory experience may give rise to an experience in the visual modality. Synaesthetes often experience correspondences between the shades of color, tones of sounds, and intensities of tastes that provoke alternate sensations (see Synaesthesia: union of the senses; Richard E. Cytowic, Synesthesia: phenomenology and neuropsychology -- a review of current knowledge, 1995).
Transdisciplinarity and interdisciplinarity: The challenge of interrelating the disciplines in some meaningful way has been addressed in many studies and programmes. A number of classical papers have endeavoured to clarify the different possible relationships between disciplines (to distinguish inter- from trans-, multi-, cross-, meta-, etc) using diagrams. That of Erich Jantsch (Towards interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity in education and innovation, 1972) is especially helpful. He identifies different patterns of relationships between a set of boxes (representing disciplines) laid out in contrasting patterns which resemble the standard hierarchical organization charts. It is however difficult to detect any genuine cognitive fusion resulting from the variety initiatives since that time, despite claims to the contrary and a plethora of methodologies and projects claiming to be interdisciplinary, transdisciplminary or metadisciplinary -- and widespread recognition of the possibility of some breakthrough (cf Metaphors as Transdisciplinary Vehicles of the Future, 1991). It is also import to recognize different degrees of ambition for such cognitive fusion -- between belief in the value of "transdisciplinarity", various forms of "transdisciplinary-lite", and recognition of the cognitive complexity to be addressed (cf Transdisplinarity-3 as the Emergence of Patterned Experience Transcending duality as the conceptual equivalent of learning to walk, 1994) [more]
Knowledge organization and management: A key set of distinct understandings of "cognitive fusion", derived from a comprehensive range of international constituencies, has been variously considered within the context of the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential developed over the past 30 years. Five separate sections (online version) encompass:
These configurations are juxtaposed with the most comprehensive databases on the networks of thousands of "world problems" as perceived by the thousands of international constituencies and the latters' "global action strategies" in response to them -- in a project most recently funded by the European Union
The work builds on a century of effort pioneered by international documentalist Paul Otlet (1868-1944), notably through the Union of International Associations (cf Simulating a Global Brain: using networks of international organizations, world problems, strategies, and values, 2001). Otlet was one of the originators of the Universal Decimal Classification system. Author of Monde (Essaie d'Universalisme: Connaissance du monde; Sentiment du monde, Action organisée et Plan du Monde, 1935), he is now recognized as an early visionary of what has become the world wide web (cf Union of International Associations -- Virtual Organization: Paul Otlet's 100-year hypertext conundrum ? 2001). Clarification of further possibilities of aspects of this work has been the subject of recent presentations:
Cognitive implications of this work have been separately explored in:
Beyond the "encylopedia": The fundamental cognitive challenge for a knowledge society might be framed in terms of whether the centuries-old "encyclopedia" metaphor is now appropriate to the integrative psychosocial engagement required by the challenges of the 21st century and its psychosocial "energy" needs (cf Reframing Sustainable Sources of Energy for the Future: the vital role of psychosocial variants, 2006). It could be argued that the fruitful connotations of encyclopedia have been distorted in three ways:
In searching for a more powerful metaphor for the organization of knowledge than "encyclopedia", the significant role of web encyclopedias (such as Wikipedia) or search engines (such as Google) is a striking phenomenon of considerable merit for 21st century society. They emphasize a networked organization of knowledge developed in a participatory mode in which all can engage. As with the inspiration of Wiki-pedia (wikiwiki means quick in Hawaian) or of Google (meaning the large number 10100). They may prove to be a vital complement to the dynamics of the semantic web. Missing however are:
Nuclear fusion processes are framed as occurring within a "reactor" -- a vessel from the origins of the industrial revolution's factories, with associations to the reactors of early chemistry, notably the athanors of alchemy. No container, other than the human mind, is specifically envisaged in modern research on "cognitive fusion". However "conceptual blending" evokes the blender as a metaphor implying the possibility of a "conceptual blender" -- suggesting "mechanical" blending and bonding in contrast with "chemical" reactions and bonding or those associated with "nuclear" reactions.
It may be argued that if humanity can best engender and explore new energy frontiers through highly dynamic cyclic devices adapted to complexity (such as the cyclotron, synchrotron, synchrocyclotron or the tokamak and other containment devices) then there is a case for exploring the appropriateness of the structure and dynamics of such devices for the organization and management of knowledge, access to it, and the insight to be engendered as a consequence of interacting with them. This is a reason for exploring the role of the torus in knowledge organization and comprehension (cf Comprehension of Requisite Variety for Sustainable Psychosocial Dynamics: transforming a matrix classification onto intertwined tori, 2006). This approach is to be contrasted with the decades of "world modelling" so successfully initiated with the insights of systems dynamics by Jay W Forrester (World Dynamics, 1973), as promoted by the Club of Rome through the work of Donella H. Meadows, et al. (The Limits to Growth, 1972). [cf Global Modelling Perspective of the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential]
Cognitive fusion in a semantic and memetic context: Understood in terms of ITER's complementary challenge of engendering and managing "burning plasma" fusion processes -- as outlined above -- the challenge is to comprehend the set of dynamic processes basic to enactivation of ITER-8. These necessarily have to do with cognitive significance understood in semantic and memetic terms. To the extent that these are intimately related to creativity and imagination, and their possible framing through metaphor, they are also intimately related to confidence in cognitive constructs -- in the sense of being an outcome of the psychosocial construction of reality. ITER-8 may then be understood as dealing with the ordered interplay of the following concerns relating to what might be termed "burning attention" fusion processes:
The indications above suggest that it might indeed be fruitful to consider the extent to which humans, and their groups, are all "tokamaks" -- operating continually but suboptimally. The alternative proposals for plasma confinement may also offer insightful metaphors for attention confinement. On the other hand, especially interesting is that any comprehensive formulation by a coherent school of thought may well be understood as a particular containment design for cognitive fusion -- with the necessary "parameters" conducive to fruitful creative reflection. A good example, given his mathematical background, his attention to quantum issues, and the challenge of managing attention dynamics to achieve cognitive fusion, is the process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead (Process and Reality: an essay in cosmology, 1929).
Modes of failure of cognitive fusion: These may be understood in various ways:
Contextual relevance: Significant contributing factors to successful cognitive fusion potentially include:
Reservations: The controlled cognitive fusion emphasized above, through its parallel to "burning plasma", explores what might be termed a "hot" metaphor for managing attention. Just as ITER-8 does not exclude other approaches to "confinement" and "containment", nor does it exclude insights that may emerge from a "cold" metaphor -- as suggested by controversial research into "cold fusion" (also known as Low Energy Nuclear Reactions or Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions). A relevant insightful distinction was notably made by Marshall McLuhan (Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, 1964):
There is a basic principle that distinguishes a hot medium like radio from a cool one like the telephone, or a hot medium like the movie from a cool one like TV. A hot medium is one that extends one single sense in "high definition.' High definition is the state of being well-filled with data. . . . Hot media are low in participation, and cool media are high in participation or completion by the audience. . . . The hot form excludes, and the cool one includes. [cf Scott Rosenberg, Taking the Internet's Temperature: what would Marshall McLuhan have said: Hot or Cold? Digital Culture, May 1995]
Like it or not, governance in the 21st century will be significantly influenced by the imagination -- whether as manipulated by news management and media phenomena, by the faith-based articulations of different belief systems, or by the search for imaginative relief from the constraints of simplistic governance, insensitive planning and the incompatible preferences of others. "Urban myths", notably regarding "immigrants" and minority groups, may have increasing influence on social unrest and remedial policies. Imagination will be called upon, through self-reflexive processes, to reframe depression, anxiety and existential doubt. Relief will be increasingly sought in alternative realities, whether private (including drug-enabled), virtual or elective communities, in which primacy is given to imaginative connectivity to provide coherence.
The relevance of the aesthetic organization of music to the challenge of contemporary governance has notably been evoked by Jacques Attali (Noise: The Political Economy of Music, 1978/1985) -- prior to taking the role of first president of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. He explores the manner in which the organization of music prefigures social and conceptual organization [more] (see also Aesthetics of Governance in the Year 2490, 1990). Recent indicators include:
Such indicators raise the question of what kind of psychosocial organization is sustained by "fusion music" -- and the organizational implications of the didjeridu, now played worldwide to a greater extent than by indigenous Australians [more]. Curiously, in the light of its "demonic success" in 2006 -- Finland's well-recognized uptake of information technology was acknowledged in the accession speech of the Finnish President of the European Commission on the New Dimensions of Learning in the Information Society (July 1999) -- by referring first to the influential role of archetypal figures in the Kalevala (cf Newsweek, May 1999; Wired, September 1999). These factors may be especially relevant to non-western cultures (cf Knowledge Gardening through Music: patterns of coherence for future African management as an alternative to Project Logic, 2000). Such considerations suggest the inappropriateness of assumptions regarding the simplicity of ensuring sustainability through "silver bullet" remedies.
ITER-8 is conceived as a process to function at the interface between abstract framings of the challenges, or the responses considered appropriate, and the concrete approaches articulated through the most insightful responses to complexity (exemplified by ITER). It is an imaginal device through which the generation of psychosocial energy is catalyzed. It uses highly disciplined thinking, employed to manage the most fundamental sources of energy, such as to order the thinking necessary to manage subtler forms of energy that are also fundamental, notably in their elusiveness. It points to the need to alternate flexibly between "hot" and "cool" processes to cognitive fusion -- and to the challenge of the interface between them.
ITER functions at on one extreme understanding of "energy" generation. Contolled "cognitive fusion" points in another direction, cultivated by ITER-8, in which possibly four forms may be conflated from more conventional, reductionistic perspectives:
Concretely such a progression would be consistent with what physicist David Peat has recently proposed under the term Gentle Action -- " an action that arises out of the whole of the situation and is not fragmented or separated from it", based on a "very gentle, but highly intelligent 'steering' of the system, in which each one of us assumes responsibility" (cf F. David Peat, Non-Linear Dynamics (Chaos Theory) and its Implications for Policy Planning).
A variety of simulations, notably when widely accessible as part of the proliferating set of internet and video games, would elicit insight, understanding and skills regarding engagement with "snake-like" dynamic challenges relevant to sustainable governance (cf Playfully Changing the Prevailing Climate of Opinion: Climate change as focal metaphor of effective global governance, 2005). Cultivating their mythological context (cf Hermann Hesse, Magister Ludi, 1943), or their imaginative dimensions, can only enhance their relevance. The science fiction work of a missile launch officer (M A Foster, Gameplayers of Zan, 1977) highlights, for example, the challenging cognitive boundaries between conventional bureaucratic thinking, nature-sensitive thinking, and the strategic game-playing fundamental to ensuring sustainability -- especially the paradoxical skills required to "drive" a powerful vehicle such as to keep it in one place, and accessible. Such game-playing calls for the kind of understanding highlighted by James P. Carse (Finite and Infinite Games: a vision of life as play and possibility, 1987).
As a collective social initiative, ITER-8 responds to the need to invest imaginatively in the metaphors that can sustain psychosocial energy in such conditions -- with appropriate attention to feedback loops necessary to the sustaining process.
David Abram. The Spell of the Sensuous : Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World. Vintage, 1997
Christopher R. Agnew, Paul A. M. Van Lange, Caryl E. Rusbult and Christopher A. Langston. Cognitive Interdependence: Commitment and the Mental Representation of Close Relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1998, Vol. 74, No. 4, pp. 939-954 [text]
Verna Allee. Knowledge Evolution: building organizational intelligence. Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997
Karen Armstrong. A Short History of Myth. Melbourne, Canongate, 2005
Cor Baerveldt and Theo Verheggen. Enactivism and the Experiential Reality of Culture: rethinking the epistemological basis of cultural psychology. Culture and Psychology, 5, 1999, 2, pp. 183-206 [text]
Gregory Bateson. Steps to an Ecology of Mind: collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. Chandler, 1972
Michael L. Best. Models for Interacting Populations of Memes: Competition and Niche Behavior. Journal of Memetics - Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission, 1, 1997 [text]
David Bohm. Wholeness and the Implicate Order. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980.
Erik P. Blasch, Scott N. Watamaniuk, and Peter Svenmarck. Cognitive-based fusion using information sets for moving target recognition. In Ivan Kadar, editor, Proc. Ninth Conf. Signal Processing, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition, SPIE volume 4052, pp. 208-217, Orlando, 2000.
M. A. Boden. The Creative Mind: myths and mechanisms. Weidenfield and Nicholson,1990.
Kenneth Boulding. Ecodynamics; a new theory of social evolution, 1978
Line Brandt. Conceptual Integration (Working paper, revision 4.0), November 2002 [text]
Dolores Brien. Today's Magnum Opus of the Soul. The Round Table Review, January/February 1999, pp. 13-17 [text]
Donald T Campbell. Ethnocentrism of Disciplines and the Fish Scale Model of Omniscience. In: M. Sherif/C.W. Sherif (Eds.), Interdisciplinary Relationships in the Social Sciences. Chicago, 1969, pp. 328-348.
James P. Carse. Finite and Infinite Games: a vision of life as play and possibility. Ballantine Books, 1987
R. Corrao and G. Fulantelli. Cognitive accessibility to information on the Web: insights from a system for teaching and learning Architecture through the Net [text]
Seana Coulson. Semantic Leaps: frame-shifting and conceptual blending in meaning construction. Cambridge University Press, 2001
Seana Coulson and Todd Oakley (Eds):
Seana Coulson and Cyma Van Petten. Conceptual Integration and Metaphor: an event-related potential study. Memory and Cognition 2002, 30 (6), pp. 958-968
Antonio de Nicolas. Meditations through the Rg Veda. Shambhala, 1978
Joël de Rosnay. The Symbiotic Man: a new understanding of the organization of life and a vision of the future. McGraw Hill, 2000
Max Deutscher. Subjecting and Objecting: an essay in objectivity. St Lucia (Queensland), University of Queensland Press, 1983
Douglas Engelbart. Augmenting Human Intellect: a conceptual framework. Stanford Research Institute, 1962 (AFOSR-3223)
Paul Evering (Ed.). Creating Whole Organization Synergy: the Eidetic reference book. Toronto, Evering Consultants, 2000 [synopsis]
Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner:
R. Buckminster Fuller with E. J. Applewhite. Synergetics: explorations in the geometry of thinking. Collier, 2 vols 1975/1982
Wolfgang Giegerich. Opposition of 'Individual' and 'Collective' -- Psychology's Basic Fault: Reflections on Today's Magnum Opus of the Soul. Harvest, Journal for Jungian Studies, 1996, V. 42, No. 2, pp. 7-27.
Joseph A. Goguen:
Pierre Gohar. From the man-of-matter to the Man-of-Light: myth or reality ? (Paper presented at CESNUR 2002 International Conference, Salt Lake City and Provo) [text]
Susantha Goonatilake. Toward a Global Science: mining civilizational knowledge. Indiana University Press, 1999
J Grady, T Oakley and S Coulson. Conceptual Blending and Metaphor. In R. Gibbs (Ed.), Metaphor in Cognitive Linguistics. John Benjamins, 1999, pp.101-124 [text]
O Grulke and T Klinger. Large-scale fluctuation structures in plasma turbulence. New Journal of Physics 4, 2002, 67.1-67.23 [text]
Rick Grush and Nili Mandelblit. Blending in language, conceptual structure, and the cerebral cortex. International Journal of Linguistics Acta Linguistica Hafniensia Volume 29, 1997, pp. 221-237 (The Roman Jakobson Centennial Symposium)
Neil J. Gunthera and Giordano B. Berettab. Towards Practical Design Rules for Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging Devices. 2005 [text]
Patrick A. Heelan:
Anders Hougaard. How're we doing: an interactional approach to cognitive processes of online meaning construction. 2005.
G. Jakobson, L. Lewis and J. Buford. An Approach to Integrated Cognitive Fusion. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Information Fusion, 2004 [text]
Erich Jantsch and C H Waddington (Eds). Evolution and Consciouness; human systems in transition. Addison-Wesley, 1976.
Mark Johnson. The Body in the Mind; the bodily basis of meaning, imagination and reason. University of Chicago Press, 1987
Carl G Jung:
J R Kendal and K N Laland). Mathematical Models for Memetics. Journal of Memetics - Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission, 4, 2000. [text]
Arthur Koestler. The Act of Creation. Arkana: Penguin Books. 1989
George Lakoff . Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things. University of Chicago Press, 1990
George Lakoff and Rafael E. Nunez. Where Mathematics Comes From: how the embodied mind brings mathematics into being. Basic Books, 2001
George Lakoff and Mark Johnson:
B. Magnini, J. Bateman and G. Fabris. The generalized upper model knowledge base: Organization and use. Towards very large knowledge bases: knowledge building and knowledge sharing, 1995.
C. J. Matheus, M. M. Kokar, and K.Baclawski. A Core Ontology for Situation Awareness. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Information Fusion, pages 545--552, 2003.
Humberto Maturana and Francisco J. Varela. The Tree of Knowledge; the biological roots of human understanding. Shambhala, 1987
John McCarthy and Patrick J. Hayes. Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence. Machine Intelligence, 4, 1969, pp. 463-502
Donella H. Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, Jorgen Randers and William W. Behrens III. The Limits to Growth. New York, University Books, 1972 (promoted by the Club of Rome).
Arthur I. Miller. Imagery in Scientific Thought; creating 20th century physics. MIT Press, 1986
Kinhide Mushakoji. Global Issues and Interparadigmatic Dialogue; essays on multipolar politics. Torino: Albert Meynier, 1988
Vasily V. Nalimov:
Ivan Novosel. Mind and Brain, Chaos and Quantum Mechanics, 2005 [text]
Jay F. Nunamaker Jr., Nicholas C. Romano Jr and Robert Owen Briggs. Increasing Intellectual Bandwidth: generating value from intellectual capital with information technology. Group Decision and Negotiation, 11, 2, March 2002, pp. 69 - 86 [abstract]
Kent D Palmer. On the Social Construction of Emergent Worlds: the foundations of reflexive autopoietic systems theory. 1996 [text]
F. David Peat:
Francisco Câmara Pereira. A Computational Model of Creativity (Thesis on conceptual blending)
Francisco Câmara Pereira and Amílcar Cardoso. Knowledge Integration with Conceptual Blending [text]
Francisco Câmara Pereira and Amílcar Cardoso. Conceptual Blending and the Quest for the Holy Creative Process. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Creative Systems: Approaches to Creativity in AI and Cognitive Science, ECAI 2002, Lyon, France, 2002 [text]
Francisco Câmara Pereira and Amílcar Cardoso. Optimality Principles for Conceptual Blending: A First Computational Approach [text]
Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Phenomenology of Perception. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962.
Darrell Posey (Ed). Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity: a complementary contribution to Global Biodiversity Assessment. Intermediate Technology, 1999 (for the United Nations Environment Programme)
David Ritchie. Categories and Similarities: a note on circularity . Metaphor and Symbol 2003, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 49-53 [text]
Robert D. Romanyshyn:
Steven M. Rosen (Ed.). Science, Paradox, and the Moebius Principle. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Steven M. Rosen. Wholeness as the Body of Paradox. 1996 [text]
Peter Russell. The Global Brain Awakens: our next evolutionary leap. Global Brain, Inc., 1995
Beate Schwichtenberg. Blending in action: diagrams reveal conceptual integration in routine activity. Cognitive Science Online, Vol.1, pp.34-45, 2003
R G H Siu:
George Spencer Brown. Laws of Form. Allen and Unwin, 1969
Mark Turner (Ed). The Artful Mind: cognitive science and the riddle of human creativity. Oxford University Press, 2006 [contents]
Francisco Varela. Laying Down a Path in Walking: essays on enactive cognition. Zone Books/MIT Press, 1997
Francisco Varela, F. E. Thompson and E. Rosch. The Embodied Mind: cognitive science and human experience. MIT Press, 1991
T. Veale and D O'Donoghue. Computation and Blending. Cognitive Linguistics, 11, 2000, 3/4, pp. 253-281 (special Issue on Conceptual Blending)
Paul Watzlawick (Ed.). The Invented Reality: contributions to constructivism.W W Norton, 1984
G. A. Wiggins. Towards a more precise characterisation of creativity in AI. In: C. Bento and A. Cardoso (Eds.), Procs. of Workshop Program of ICCBR - Creative Systems: Approaches to Creativity in AI and Cognitive Science, 2001
Arthur Young. The Geometry of Meaning. Delacourt Press / Seymour Lawrence, 1978
this work is licenced under a creative commons licence.